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Category: Cognitive Impairment

Frontotemporal Dementia Symptoms

Frontotemporal Dementia Symptoms

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a type of dementia that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Unlike Alzheimer’s disease, which typically affects memory first, FTD is characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and language. The symptoms of FTD can be subtle at first and may be mistaken for depression or other mental health conditions. However, as the disease progresses, the symptoms become more apparent and can have a significant impact on daily life. FTD is caused by the degeneration of neurons in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These neurons are responsible for transmitting signals between different areas of the brain, and as they degenerate, this communication is disrupted. This disruption can lead to a variety of symptoms, including changes in behavior, language difficulties, and problems with executive function.

Personality and Behavior Changes: One of the early signs of FTD is a change in personality or behavior. This can include a lack of empathy, inappropriate social behavior, loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed, and compulsive behavior such as hoarding or gambling. Some people with FTD may also have difficulty controlling their emotions and may display outbursts of anger, frustration, or even aggression. This can be particularly distressing for family members and caregivers.

Language and Speech Problems: FTD can also affect a person’s ability to communicate. This can manifest as difficulty finding the right words, speaking in short or disjointed sentences, or repeating words or phrases. Some people with FTD may also struggle to understand language or have trouble following conversations. As the disease progresses, it can become increasingly difficult for a person with FTD to express themselves and communicate with others.

Movement and Coordination Issues: In some cases, FTD can also cause problems with movement and coordination. This can include muscle weakness, difficulty with balance or gait, and stiffness or rigidity in the limbs. Some people with FTD may also develop tremors or other movement disorders, which can further impact their ability to perform daily tasks.

Memory Loss: Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is a form of dementia that primarily affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These two areas of the brain are responsible for a variety of functions, including language, emotion, behavior, and memory. While memory loss is not always the first symptom of FTD, it can be a significant effect of the disease.

One of the most common types of memory loss associated with FTD is semantic memory loss. Semantic memory is the type of memory that allows us to remember facts, concepts, and general knowledge. People with FTD may have difficulty remembering things like the names of objects, the meanings of words, or the steps involved in completing a task.

Another type of memory loss that can occur in FTD is episodic memory loss. Episodic memory is the type of memory that allows us to remember specific events or experiences. People with FTD may have difficulty remembering recent events or experiences, and they may also have difficulty forming new memories.

In addition to memory loss, FTD can also affect other cognitive functions that are important for memory. For example, people with FTD may have difficulty with attention, concentration, and working memory. These functions are important for encoding and retrieving memories, so their impairment can make it difficult for people with FTD to remember information.

The effects of memory loss in FTD can have a significant impact on a person’s daily life. People with FTD may have difficulty with tasks that require them to remember information, such as following directions, completing tasks, or remembering appointments. They may also have difficulty with social interactions, as they may have difficulty remembering people’s names or details about their relationships.

Overall, memory loss is a significant effect of Frontotemporal Dementia. While it is not always the first symptom of the disease, it can have a significant impact on a person’s daily life. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life for people with FTD and their families.

It is a relatively rare form of dementia, accounting for about 5-10% of all dementia cases, and typically occurs in people aged 40-75 years old. FTD is also known as Pick’s disease or frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

FTD is a progressive disease that affects different parts of the brain, leading to changes in behavior, personality, and language abilities. Unlike other forms of dementia, FTD usually affects younger people and progresses more rapidly. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial for managing FTD symptoms and improving the quality of life for those affected.

Symptoms of FTD can be divided into three categories: behavioral changes, language difficulties, and movement problems.

Behavioral changes:

One of the early signs of FTD is a change in behavior or personality. The individual may become socially inappropriate, impulsive, and lose their inhibitions. They may engage in risky or inappropriate behaviors, such as shoplifting or sexual misconduct. They may also become apathetic, showing little interest in their surroundings or activities they previously enjoyed. In some cases, they may show signs of depression or anxiety.

Language difficulties:

FTD can affect a person’s ability to use and understand language. They may struggle to find the right words, repeat themselves frequently, or have difficulty with grammar and syntax. As the disease progresses, they may lose the ability to communicate entirely. This is known as primary progressive aphasia, and it can be divided into two types: semantic dementia, where the person struggles to remember words and understand their meaning.

Further Reading:

Frontotemporal dementia – NHS (www.nhs.uk)

Frontotemporal Dementias – Practical Neurology

Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) | Alzheimer’s Society (alzheimers.org.uk)

#ftd #Frontotemporaldementia #cognitiveimpairment #behaviour #language #behavioralchanges #dementia #frontallobe #temporallobe #memoryloss #lackofinterest #compulsivebehaviour #lackofempathy #mentalhealth

Cognitive Impairment

Cognitive Impairment: Understanding the Condition and Its Causes

Cognitive impairment is a general term used to describe a decline in mental abilities that affects a person’s everyday functioning. These abilities include memory, language, attention, perception, and executive functions such as planning and decision-making. The condition can range from mild to severe and can be temporary or permanent.

Causes of Cognitive Impairment

There are numerous causes of cognitive impairment, including:

  1. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s can cause a gradual decline in mental abilities, leading to cognitive impairment.
  2. Brain Injury: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause temporary or permanent cognitive impairment, depending on the severity of the injury.
  3. Infections: Certain infections such as meningitis, HIV, and Lyme disease can cause cognitive impairment.
  4. Substance Abuse: Alcohol and drug abuse can have negative effects on cognitive function, leading to cognitive impairment.
  5. Mental Illness: Mental health conditions such as depression and schizophrenia can cause cognitive impairment.
  6. Vitamin Deficiencies: Lack of certain vitamins, such as Vitamin B1, B6, and B12, can lead to cognitive impairment.
  7. Chronic Medical Conditions: Chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease can lead to cognitive impairment.

Symptoms of Cognitive Impairment

The symptoms of cognitive impairment vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

  1. Memory Loss: Difficulty remembering recent events, names, and important dates.
  2. Language Problems: Difficulty speaking, reading, and writing, as well as trouble understanding speech and written words.
  3. Attention and Perception Problems: Difficulty paying attention, concentrating, and perceiving things accurately.
  4. Executive Function Problems: Difficulty with tasks that require planning, decision-making, and organization.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cognitive Impairment

Diagnosing cognitive impairment typically involves a comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare provider, including a medical history, physical exam, and various cognitive tests. Additional tests may be performed, such as imaging studies or laboratory tests, to identify any underlying causes.

Treatment for cognitive impairment depends on the underlying cause. For example, treating a vitamin deficiency can improve cognitive function, while managing a chronic medical condition can prevent further decline in cognitive abilities. In some cases, medications and other therapies may be used to improve cognitive function.

Preventing Cognitive Impairment

While some causes of cognitive impairment are beyond our control, there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing the condition:

  1. Exercise regularly to improve overall brain health and maintain cognitive abilities.
  2. Eat a healthy diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  3. Stay mentally active by engaging in activities such as reading, solving puzzles, and playing games that challenge the brain.
  4. Avoid alcohol and drug abuse, which can have negative effects on cognitive function.
  5. Manage chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, to prevent further decline in cognitive abilities.

Cognitive impairment can have a significant impact on a person’s daily life. It is important to seek treatment and support if you or a loved one is experiencing symptoms of cognitive impairment. By understanding the causes and symptoms of cognitive impairment, and taking steps to prevent the condition, you can maintain optimal cognitive function throughout your life.

#cognitiveimpairment #cbt #braininjury #neurodegenerative #cerebellaratrophy #mentalillness

Renata’s Online Health Journal Update 2022!

Renata’s Online Health Journal Update 2022!

People who shy away from people with mental health disorders or disabilities and label people as damaged goods usually have their own demons to contend with”.

I need to vent and let off steam before I blow a gasket.

The last few months have taken a toll on my health. As most of you know I am the Editor of ‘Disability UK – Disabled Entrepreneur Online Journal’ and have come to near enough a standstill with my business because of my health.

My Disabilities are Invisible.

I sometimes am so depressed it takes a lot of effort to do anything, these days.

Renata’s Online Journal Health Report

The following is a snippet of what I am going through.

I am disabled, I suffer from Cerebellar Atrophy, OCD, and Depression so it is no surprise that I have highs and lows. Yet most recently I have been experiencing very bad lows.

I do not have a support system and my GP is as useful as a chocolate fire guard. https://disabledentrepreneur.uk/gp-doctor-negligence-evidence/ To understand my health you will have to understand how the last few months have been for me and what I have gone through and am still going through.

Events 2022.

  1. I have been through war and back with ‘British Gas’, which I have reported to ‘Ombudsman’ who in turn report to ‘OFGEM’. ‘British Gas’ caused me humiliation, intimidation, harassment, and emotional distress.
  2. In another incident I had 40 emails from a credit card issuer (situation now under control), again I have experienced, humiliation, intimidation, harassment, and emotional distress. (They gave me £100 as a gesture of goodwill, with the understanding that if I endure more harassment I will report them to the Ombudsman). I know what they will say but she accepted the £100, which is just a band-aid on a gaping wound.
  3. Most recently my laptop started having a blue screen and eventually died, I have not been able to do anything online for about a week. I have simply used my phone to read and reply to emails and do research. This started making me sink into a very dark place.
  4. I then had a brand new computer and not even a week old I ended up with a BSOD, you just can’t make this stuff up. https://marketingagency.cymrumarketing.com/2022/08/24/lenovo-or-windows-fault-blue-screen-of-death-bsod-2022/
  5. My internet is intermittent, and I am getting the blame game excuse (it’s not us it must be you), this is an ongoing issue in which they gave 3 months of free broadband, but the issues are starting to happen again. Virgin Media Outage in Cardiff, Wales: Current Problems and Outages • Is The Service Down? UK
  6. I have lost clients due to the rise in the cost of living and them not being able to afford their websites. (No help for small businesses I hear your cry, and yes the rich get richer and the poor get poorer).

My health.

  • I am very depressed.
  • My OCD has spiraled off the ricker scale.
  • I have intrusive thoughts.
  • I have no patience.
  • I have panic attacks.
  • I hate noise, anything from traffic to car doors opening and closing.
  • The only way I will interact is online.
  • I do not answer my phone, which no doubt has cost me a lot of business.

So there is a knock-on domino effect when people are so robotic and irritating to the point if I could shove my fist down the other end of the line or across the computer screen, I would.

I am not in a good place right now because I am struggling to stay positive and optimistic. I have been studying neuroplasticity and I should stick with it because something I thought about, the next day materialized. Therefore I need to heal and start caring about myself rather than neglecting myself.

I plan to write a book about my life, this will no doubt open a can of worms, not only for me having to recall things that I would rather not remember but for the people that have done me wrong. My book will mention all the highs and lows and perhaps it may help people to avoid the same mistakes I made, in my relationships, and in my career, not only how everything over the years has affected my health and how I am trying to heal.

“I want to make a difference in this world and help people like me or worse off than me”.

I may not physically want to interact but a virtual connection I am fine with, although I won’t be doing anything for a few weeks because I need to recover from all the trauma I have had to endure over the last few months.

This all goes towards documenting my health so that it all gets put on the NHS database. There is a reason behind my madness.

It saddens me that the people I have reached out to on a personal level, who said they were going to get back in touch never have. I assume that they have reached their own conclusions and do not want to interact with someone that has disabilities. I suppose they see me as damaged goods, but labeling someone in such a way is not only hurtful but incorrect because we all have something going on in our lives thus we can all be labeled the same way. In fact, it will be hard to find a person that has not been screwed over in some way or another and how it affected them mentally. Usually, people who shy away from people with mental health disorders have their own demons to contend with and cannot handle yours. I do not see myself as damaged I see myself as someone who can overcome obstacles and then write about them. Just because I am having a bad day today does not mean I will be having a bad day tomorrow. No two days are the same. Yes, I have disabilities but there are millions of people in the same boat as me or worse off. You need to find the strength to make your story your superpower. Everyone has a book waiting to be written. There’s No Such Thing As Being “Damaged Goods” In A Relationship—Here’s Why (bolde.com)

I am like a bear with a sore head at the moment, as a consequence, I avoid talking over the phone as much as possible. When I do have to call people, as an example the other day, I nearly bit an IT engineer’s head off when I was having trouble accessing my site. I did apologize afterward about my outburst but I have a very short fuse and my temperament is not great, I can come off at times as being rude, (I try not to be, but cannot help it if people push my buttons). However, I also get very obnoxious, patronizing, and condescending individuals and all I want to do is punch their faces. I am no good at interacting physically, which is fortunate.

I have reported ‘British Gas’ to the Ombudsman and have to wait on an outcome. I feel very lethargic and am finding it hard to be optimistic right now. I should stay positive but is hard when I have to deal with some things that cause my health to worsen. It is as if I make one step forward and two steps back.

My OCD has gone through the roof and where I was making progress the last few months have basically thrown all my hard work away. Having a mental health disorder like depression which causes an onset of intrusive thoughts causing you to have compulsions to ease the anxiety. it is a vicious circle. and that is why I do not interact physically.

#onlinediary #onlinejournal #scripting #journalling #blogging #pip #depression #stress #anxiety #ocd #mental health #obsessivecompulsivedisorder

Stress & Cognitive Function.

Photo Credit Pixabay : Geralt
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Stress & Cognitive Function.

Psychological stress can affect a person’s cognitive abilities, in the short term (e.g., when an individual’s thoughts are pre-occupied with an argument or problem that happened earlier in the day resulting in reduced ability to concentrate) as well as over the long term, where the intrusive thoughts creep in and the problem simply does not go away and festers, which in turn can lead to anxiety, depression and other mental health disabilities.

Emotional and cognitive changes

The emotional and cognitive effects are often the greatest challenges. Some of the most common symptoms can be hidden from plain sight. These changes can affect the way people feel about themselves and alter their cognitive functions. For many, the emotional and cognitive effects represent the greatest challenges.

Emotional changes

Uncertainty, stress, and anxiety, depression are the most common disorders a person can experience.

A person with an autoimmune neurological disease such as MS or Cerebellar Atrophy may grieve for their life before they were diagnosed with a disorder. Other emotional changes that may occur include clinical depression, bipolar disorder, and mood swings. All of these are more common among people with MS than in the general population. Depression and bipolar disorder require professional attention and the use of effective treatments.

Emotional lability appears to be more common, and possibly more severe, in people with MS and Mental Health Disorders. This may include frequent mood changes, for example from happy to sad to angry.

It is believed that the causes are the extra stress brought on by MS as well as neurological changes. Uncontrollable laughing and crying is a disorder affecting a small proportion of people with MS, and it is thought to be caused by MS-related changes in the brain.

Low self-esteem

Having MS can affect self-esteem. There may be times when it’s difficult to do everything a person is used to doing, or they may have to do things differently. Focusing too much on the negative aspects can feel overwhelming.

Cognitive changes

Cognition refers to the “higher” brain functions such as memory and reasoning. About half of all people with MS will not experience any cognitive changes, but for others, the most commonly affected aspects of cognition are:


Attention and concentration


Speed of information processing

Abstract reasoning and problem solving

Visual-spatial abilities

Executive functions

Studies have shown according to author Dr. Sudha Seshadri, professor of neurology at UT Health San Antonio explains that higher levels of stress translate into raised levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the blood. A raised level of cortisol in the blood can predict brain size, function, and also the performance of the individual when faced with cognitive tests. She said, “We found memory loss and brain shrinkage in relatively young people long before any symptoms could be seen.” It’s never too early to be mindful of reducing stress,” she added. The lead author, Dr. Justin B. Echouffo-Tcheugui, an assistant professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins also said that symptoms of stress-related memory loss and brain damage may not be evident until much damage has already been done.

Cerebellar Atrophy & Stress.

The cerebellum is connected with stress-related brain areas and expresses the machinery required to process stress-related neurochemical mediators. Surprisingly, it is not regarded as a substrate of stress-related behavioral alterations, despite numerous studies that show cerebellar responsivity to stress.


Notes From The Editor.

“I suffer from cognitive impairment, I lose my balance, jumble my words, and have memory loss. The condition I have is cerebellar atrophy. I was diagnosed with it around 2011”.

The more stressed I am the less I want to do. I sometimes have to force myself to churn the wheel for another day.

I suffer from clinical depression and have been diagnosed with this over 30 years ago. There are days that I have to fight with my thoughts in order to get through the day.

Recently with the price hikes, my depression is getting worse. I have my voice mail turned off and my phone is on airplane mode constantly. I cannot deal with talking to people over the phone. To counteract this I much prefer email correspondence. I am not too good with letters especially forms because of my OCD, this is something else I suffer with.

Having people pity me and say things “Awh Bless” or “Poor You”, really gets my back up. It is condescending. Furthermore, people are quick to judge or assume.

The difference between someone who is self-employed and someone who is employed is that the employed person is a slave to their employer and has a guaranteed wage, whilst the self-employed do not have a guaranteed income stream. A disabled person may choose to work for themselves as they do not have the same amount of pressure or obstacles to overcome.

I spoke with a British Gas customer rep the other day and she started asking questions, such as do I have a carer, and when I said no, I could hear her brain ticking and assuming that I am making things up about my illness. I tried explaining if I get stressed my mental state shuts down and I go into a whirl of depression. I continued to say that yanking my gas bill from £65 per month to £90 and a further hike to £138 was simply unacceptable. I simply cannot get this sort of money out of my a##e. I ended by saying I won’t be able to work because I cannot cope with the stress this is causing me. Now wait for the assuming bit she replied “what do you mean you will not be able to work, what do you do”? I said “I am the editor of “Disability UK Journal”. There was silence and then her attitude changed.

“A person who is self-employed and becomes unwell cannot function or keep their business running. So if they do not work no money comes in”.

“Just because I run this disability journal does not mean I am rolling around in money. Never assume anything”!

I am not a charity and I have no funding, I simply rely on Advertising & Marketing Revenue”.

Never assume because someone is working, they are financially secure or they do not have disabilities, or if they have they must not be all there especially when they have mental health disorders”.

There is so much stigma attached to disabilities with small-minded people judging and assuming things. Just because someone may have a disability does not make them less capable than the next person (depending on certain factors and disabilities of course), they may in fact do a better job.

“A disabled person can be more intelligent than you, so never assume that they are not”.

Elon Musk for example has ADHD and suffers from Asperger’s syndrome and is the richest man in the world.



Further Reading:



#disabilityuk #disabledentrepreneur #multiplesclerosis #mscongintivefunctions #cognitivefunctions #stress #anxiety #judging #assuming #selfemployed #disabledselfemployed #depression

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