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Category: Cerebellar Atrophy

Cerebellar degeneration is a condition in which cerebellar cells, otherwise known as neurons, become damaged and progressively weaken in the cerebellum. There are two types of cerebellar degeneration; paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, and alcoholic or nutritional cerebellar degeneration.

Cerebellar atrophy is one of the diagnostic features in PEHO syndrome (progressive encephalopathy with edema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy) and usually appears in the second year of life.

Conclusions: Altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebral networks involved in cognitive-affective processing in patients with OCD provides further evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of OCD, and is consistent with impairment in executive control and emotion

Cerebellar atrophy is more extensive in patients with secondary progressive MS and those with longer disease duration when compared with people who have relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and/or shorter disease duration, and cerebellar atrophy has been shown to correlate with clinical measures of disability.

I Nearly Died Due To Losing My Balance Because Of Cerebellar Atrophy.

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Can stress cause your cerebellar atrophy to get worse?

The link between the cerebellum is connected with stress-related brain areas and expresses the machinery required to process stress-related neurochemical mediators.

As most of my readers already know I suffer from ‘Cerebellar Atrophy’. Other than jumbling my letters and words up when I am writing (thank God for Grammarly) and occasionally memory loss, hence I have to jot things down to help me remember, I also have noticed lately an increase in loss of balance.

In fact ironically with what I am about to tell you, just over a year ago I did have a similar episode where I fell down five steps landing on my back and being severely bruised (I do not recall feeling lightheaded at the time just lost my footing). I made sure my doctor (GP) was notified in the letter I wrote that was confirmed was put on the system but no one in the surgery took any action.

However, on 10/06/22 being home alone I was at the top of the stairs and all of a sudden my whole body started to give way. Not only did I feel very lightheaded and the room was spinning, but I also could not balance properly and could feel my body about to hurtle down a flight of stairs. Fortunately, I grabbed hold of the central support pillar to help me break my fall. Had I not stopped myself I would not be writing this post today.

Research suggests people who suffer from psychological stress are more prone to having their condition worsen.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31348932/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4419550/

Analyzing why this happened to me yesterday all I can put it down to is I am under a lot of pressure. With the rise in the cost of living and having to also run a business, I am really feeling a financial pinch.

I actually wrote what to do if you are finding it hard to pay your bills, you should not run away from the problem but instead tackle it head-on. I also wrote that some creditors will be condescending and intimidating and what one should do if this happens. https://disabledentrepreneur.uk/creditor-harassment-mental-health/

By coincidence taking a leaf out of my own book, I wrote to all the utility companies and my creditors offering to pay anything I owe in affordable installments. All the utility companies and one of the creditors were all understanding and seemed to all accept my offer Barr one who as it happens I owe the least of money to and no word of a lie has written to me 22 emails to date repeating the same things over and over again. As it is my understanding either multiple people are dealing with one account and not updating one another or they are trying to intimidate me to pay more. I have since written a 10-page letter which took me all day to do and no doubt I will be getting email #23 soon.

My utility bills at the beginning of the year were £154 per month in April they rose to £219 and have risen again to £412. Now here is the question where does one find an extra £267 per month if you do not have that sort of money, to begin with?

So I wrote to all my creditors and explained the situation and all have agreed on my offer and the most I pay is £239

It has riled me that every day I get one or two emails from this one creditor (V) and every day I cannot move forward because I always have this nagging conscious feeling that I need to reply.

They are purposely trying to break me down and they leave me no choice but to report them to the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA).

They have caused me considerable emotional and psychological distress.

https://disabledentrepreneur.uk/emotional-distress/

https://disabledentrepreneur.uk/emotional-distress-compensation/

If it was not for the fact I am pushing myself to fight this battle I could easily have just given up, turned to alcohol, drugs, or worse.

If you are feeling down and are in a similar position to me DO NOT TURN TO Alcohol, Drugs Smoking, etc, instead seek medical advice through your doctor and professional advice immediately. Here is our useful links page.

You should not suffer alone and millions of people are in the same boat as you.

There is a solution to every problem. Stand your ground and never let anyone intimidate or harass you as I have experienced lately.

Write to your creditors on headed paper rather than just email. Provide them with a breakdown of your expenses. This one creditor never sent me a form similar to the one I have designed below, just bombarded me with daily questions.

According to the harassing creditor (V) they claimed they could not have asked all the questions in one email and in my reply I sent them the form below arguing that if a solicitor or governing body writes to you they do not send multiple emails they send one email and or one letter. 22 emails and counting is harassment and is designed to break you down.

I have a sample template of a form you can send your utility companies and creditors. I can customize it for you, make it editable, and remove any watermarks.

ALPHA-TEMPLATE-edit

I do not drink alcohol as a rule as it has landed me in heaps of embarrassment and trouble many times in the past doing stupid things and am just happy drinking my energy drinks, but this company (V) which shall remain nameless for now is harassing me and that is against the law, consequently making my illness worse.

I have been meaning to update the GP surgery on my health conditions for a while now and have not found the time, but even if my illness worsens I am not going to get treatment, tests, infusions, etc like my daughter is getting. She is 21 and she can make her decisions but I have my own views which I will leave for another day.

Do contact us if you want the customized form in this article using the form below, **please note we may consider sending the form to you (free of charge) if you are experiencing financial difficulty, however, our business information (Disability UK -Disabled Entrepreneur will be in the footer. It will not have Designed by Renata):

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#stress #anxiety #cerebellum #littlebrain #balance #depression #creditorharassment #costofliving #debtmanagement #tort #financialdificulty

Stress & Cognitive Function.

Photo Credit Pixabay : Geralt
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Stress & Cognitive Function.

Psychological stress can affect a person’s cognitive abilities, in the short term (e.g., when an individual’s thoughts are pre-occupied with an argument or problem that happened earlier in the day resulting in reduced ability to concentrate) as well as over the long term, where the intrusive thoughts creep in and the problem simply does not go away and festers, which in turn can lead to anxiety, depression and other mental health disabilities.

Emotional and cognitive changes

The emotional and cognitive effects are often the greatest challenges. Some of the most common symptoms can be hidden from plain sight. These changes can affect the way people feel about themselves and alter their cognitive functions. For many, the emotional and cognitive effects represent the greatest challenges.

Emotional changes

Uncertainty, stress, and anxiety, depression are the most common disorders a person can experience.

A person with an autoimmune neurological disease such as MS or Cerebellar Atrophy may grieve for their life before they were diagnosed with a disorder. Other emotional changes that may occur include clinical depression, bipolar disorder, and mood swings. All of these are more common among people with MS than in the general population. Depression and bipolar disorder require professional attention and the use of effective treatments.

Emotional lability appears to be more common, and possibly more severe, in people with MS and Mental Health Disorders. This may include frequent mood changes, for example from happy to sad to angry.

It is believed that the causes are the extra stress brought on by MS as well as neurological changes. Uncontrollable laughing and crying is a disorder affecting a small proportion of people with MS, and it is thought to be caused by MS-related changes in the brain.

Low self-esteem

Having MS can affect self-esteem. There may be times when it’s difficult to do everything a person is used to doing, or they may have to do things differently. Focusing too much on the negative aspects can feel overwhelming.

Cognitive changes

Cognition refers to the “higher” brain functions such as memory and reasoning. About half of all people with MS will not experience any cognitive changes, but for others, the most commonly affected aspects of cognition are:

Memory

Attention and concentration

Word-finding

Speed of information processing

Abstract reasoning and problem solving

Visual-spatial abilities

Executive functions

Studies have shown according to author Dr. Sudha Seshadri, professor of neurology at UT Health San Antonio explains that higher levels of stress translate into raised levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the blood. A raised level of cortisol in the blood can predict brain size, function, and also the performance of the individual when faced with cognitive tests. She said, “We found memory loss and brain shrinkage in relatively young people long before any symptoms could be seen.” It’s never too early to be mindful of reducing stress,” she added. The lead author, Dr. Justin B. Echouffo-Tcheugui, an assistant professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins also said that symptoms of stress-related memory loss and brain damage may not be evident until much damage has already been done.

Cerebellar Atrophy & Stress.

The cerebellum is connected with stress-related brain areas and expresses the machinery required to process stress-related neurochemical mediators. Surprisingly, it is not regarded as a substrate of stress-related behavioral alterations, despite numerous studies that show cerebellar responsivity to stress.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31348932/

Notes From The Editor.

“I suffer from cognitive impairment, I lose my balance, jumble my words, and have memory loss. The condition I have is cerebellar atrophy. I was diagnosed with it around 2011”.

The more stressed I am the less I want to do. I sometimes have to force myself to churn the wheel for another day.

I suffer from clinical depression and have been diagnosed with this over 30 years ago. There are days that I have to fight with my thoughts in order to get through the day.

Recently with the price hikes, my depression is getting worse. I have my voice mail turned off and my phone is on airplane mode constantly. I cannot deal with talking to people over the phone. To counteract this I much prefer email correspondence. I am not too good with letters especially forms because of my OCD, this is something else I suffer with.

Having people pity me and say things “Awh Bless” or “Poor You”, really gets my back up. It is condescending. Furthermore, people are quick to judge or assume.

The difference between someone who is self-employed and someone who is employed is that the employed person is a slave to their employer and has a guaranteed wage, whilst the self-employed do not have a guaranteed income stream. A disabled person may choose to work for themselves as they do not have the same amount of pressure or obstacles to overcome.

I spoke with a British Gas customer rep the other day and she started asking questions, such as do I have a carer, and when I said no, I could hear her brain ticking and assuming that I am making things up about my illness. I tried explaining if I get stressed my mental state shuts down and I go into a whirl of depression. I continued to say that yanking my gas bill from £65 per month to £90 and a further hike to £138 was simply unacceptable. I simply cannot get this sort of money out of my a##e. I ended by saying I won’t be able to work because I cannot cope with the stress this is causing me. Now wait for the assuming bit she replied “what do you mean you will not be able to work, what do you do”? I said “I am the editor of “Disability UK Journal”. There was silence and then her attitude changed.

“A person who is self-employed and becomes unwell cannot function or keep their business running. So if they do not work no money comes in”.

“Just because I run this disability journal does not mean I am rolling around in money. Never assume anything”!

I am not a charity and I have no funding, I simply rely on Advertising & Marketing Revenue”.

Never assume because someone is working, they are financially secure or they do not have disabilities, or if they have they must not be all there especially when they have mental health disorders”.

There is so much stigma attached to disabilities with small-minded people judging and assuming things. Just because someone may have a disability does not make them less capable than the next person (depending on certain factors and disabilities of course), they may in fact do a better job.

“A disabled person can be more intelligent than you, so never assume that they are not”.

Elon Musk for example has ADHD and suffers from Asperger’s syndrome and is the richest man in the world.

https://disabledentrepreneur.uk/category/famous-entrepreneurs-with-disabilities/

https://www.disabilityscoop.com/2021/05/10/elon-musk-says-he-has-aspergers/29332/

Further Reading:

https://www.msif.org/about-ms/symptoms-of-ms/cognition-and-emotional-changes/

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20181025/Stress-can-cause-memory-loss-and-brain-shrinkage-finds-study.aspx

#disabilityuk #disabledentrepreneur #multiplesclerosis #mscongintivefunctions #cognitivefunctions #stress #anxiety #judging #assuming #selfemployed #disabledselfemployed #depression

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Renata’s Online Journal 11/05/22

Keep your business moving forward

Renata’s Online Journal.

My Online Journal is my safe space where I can share my stories and vent. I do not always write negatively but of late I have noticed blue-chip corporations treating people badly so not only is this my online therapy it also is a voice for people who cannot or do not know how to stand up for themselves.

Dear Diary,

I have not made an entry here for a while and yesterday was the ideal time to do some journaling and spill the beans.

The morning started out with me phoning all my insurance providers as I had deleted some direct debits in error. I suffer from cognitive impairment caused by cerebellum atrophy and sometimes muddle my words up. The words can be very overwhelming for me at times. Being stressed does not help and where I should have canceled one insurance policy, I actually canceled three. As it turns out the other two direct debits were obsolete, but still having to phone all nine companies was challenging.

The other problem I have is dreading talking over the phone so when I tried to rectify the problem via email I was point-blank declined and was told to call. The calling is not so bad but it listening to the prompts Press #1 for what you had for breakfast Press #2 what you had for lunch and #Press #3 just to annoy you more (just kidding) although I have been subjected to up to 4 minutes of this from various companies before the annoying music starts playing. God forbid if your call drops and you have to start all the BS all over again.

Insurers do not make it easy, so although you may take out insurance by a said insurer the underwriters a separate company collect payment. So there could be the same underwriter for multiple insurers which can make it difficult when trying to find out who is who. I have done a spreadsheet so that I do not get caught out again, but by the 9th insurer I had enough, yet my day was only starting.

I then got an email from British Gas that they needed me to phone them to set up a direct debit. I have anxiety about talking over the phone to people. The term used is Telephobia, but I bit the bullet and phoned them. I got to speak to someone who at first came across as slightly condescending when she thought I was unemployed with mental disabilities, (people confuse mental disabilities with stupidity on the contrary Albert Einstien, Nikola Tesla, and Charles Darwin to name a few all had mental disabilities (OCD – Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) ) so it was a shock to her when I mentioned this site. She then changed her tune and was more understanding and helpful going as far as giving me some links and recommending that I contact some of the links she had provided.

What rattled me was, that I was paying £65 at the beginning of the year then it went up to £90, and yesterday she wanted £138 per month. I was told I use more gas than the average household. The way I see it regardless if I did not use any gas at all, I still would have to pay for the service. I am not going to reduce the quality of my life and sit at home freezing cold. or only cook once a week. If a person is struggling to pay £90 then how the hell are they supposed to find the money to pay £138?

A little bit of maths and common sense would not go a miss.

“What are people supposed to do, do they have to rob banks or starve”?

Our PM is allegedly dragging his heels at helping the UK with the rise in the cost of living yet he is quick to give support to Sweden and Finland. Yet coming from a privedged upbringing he has never had any worries about where his next paycheck is going to come from or about putting food on the table. Living in a home that was decorated from private donations and wallpaper at £840 per roll he will never understand how the other half lives. His wallpaper is ugly just saying and I would not pay £1 per roll let alone £840.

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/boris-johnson-wallpaper-flat-refurb-b1850209.html

Someone on LinkedIn commented “that charity starts a home”, but what she failed to comprehend was the support in the event of a military attack on these countries will be money in BJs / Chancellor of the Exchequers Pockets so to speak. W#ar is big business at the expense of the people. How do you accumulate wealth if you do not lend money or charge interest on the money you lend out? This is how the money system works. If you lone out jets, sell ballistic and nuclear missiles you have to get paid and its one big game of the winner takes it all.

I do not support the funding of the lavish lifestyles of the 1% that think they own us and rob us blind. I never agreed to slaving away, did you?

No one owns me. I have a voice and I am not afraid to use it!

I am a spiritual being in a physical body and we are here for a reason and it is to teach others, empower and motivate and not steal, abuse, or kill, we are supposed to be intelligent human beings, not animals.

We should be able to distinguish right from wrong and if the likes of P#tin who orders the mass killings then he is no better than something that has just crawled out of a sewer. These people are vermin.

In fact, any person in power that has done wrong should be punished the same way as a member of public and should also be kicked out of office, I refer to certain politicians, that got a slap on the wrist and fines, for their publicised antics.

There is a Scottish MP trending at the moment that allegedly had £25 Million in Funding For PPE that supposedly ended up being used due to it not being of high quality and was returned. This MP is now being investigated.

Just imagine if this was the average entrepreneur that had done this, they would be facing a custodial sentence for fraud, but I guess if you own 6 houses (one in Belgravia in London) you have enough money to pay for a jail-free card on the monopoly board.

I spoke about a previous post about why people do not care and the customer representative said that people do care and that she cared (no they don’t unless it directly affects them). She then asked could she help me with anything else and I said “help me bring in more clients”, the call then ended without any feedback on my remark…I rest my case!

Reference the money she expected me to agree to I said I will pay, but will not be able to eat and the CEO of British Gas will certainly not have a problem bringing food to the table whilst I will and this is where she started to be sympathetic.

Frustration

I got my frustration out, if nothing else, and told her she was professional and had a calming voice, I just did not mention the fact she made me feel bad at the beginning of the conversation as what would have been the point. I felt had I not mentioned I am self-employed the conversation would have been slightly different.

If you have watched the video “The Hidden Secrets Of Money” By Mike Maloney”, you will start to realize this is one big game of monopoly with the Blue Chip Companies at the top of the food chain STEALING our prosperity.

“The is a Great Reset Looming on the Horizon”.

Do you think it is by chance this P#tin W#ar has broken out or is it something to do with the deficit spending and all the price rises? Have you forgotten about Brexit and how much money UK is in debt by and how much money they have to pay back, never mind the trade w#ar in China and the USA. Putting the jigsaw pieces together can you not see a picture emerging?

These blue-chip companies get a 6% commission for our sweat, labor, and hardship. Do you think that the dictator started the w#ar himself or was it pre-arranged at the round table, by a selected few?

People at the top of the food chain seem to think they own and control you and in a way they do.

An example of a battery in the matrix was Virgin Media which I have for months had an ongoing dispute again I have communicated by email and have told them not to phone me and what do they do? they only phone even though I specifically requested not to. What was interesting though my phone was on “do not disturb” but they managed to get through and the phone rang. I re-iterated how much emotional distress they put me through and I am still no closer to a resolution as the email I was promised I would have, never materialized.

So you can imagine the poor sod on the other end of the line receiving my wrath and me saying “if you read my email do you not understand English”, his reply was he was ordered by someone above him to phone me and my final reply was that he obviously did not have the balls to stand up to the person. Most people are afraid of speaking up in the workplace for the fear of being fired. People go to work like sheep to get their paychecks the majority do not go to work because they love the company that employs them they are solely there to do a job and get paid. They are human robots being told what to do. Their “VOICE” in the metaphorical sense of the word is taken away, they are slaves to the employer for the hours they work.

Anxiety & Panic Attack.

The day continued with my brother telling me that he is coming over to the UK at Christmas. Under normal circumstances, I should be ecstatic but I am having a panic attack simply thinking about it.

I have not left my home for three years due to social disconnection and OCD, actually, tell a lie I went out once to meet him last year for the day and I felt so ill after that but he was oblivious to my disability. He told me that I have to arrange my schedule and my work around him. He told me we will be talking this weekend coming.

Notice how my disability and my work are of no significance to him and I have to just get over myself.

The icing on the cake was the final straw that broke the camel’s back so to speak with my neighbor announcing she is moving within the month. she without a doubt had to be the nicest neighbor I have ever had, she was always kind, and caring and never did me wrong. I will miss her.

I do believe nothing standstills and when one door closes another one opens so although I felt very depressed yesterday with low self-esteem. That was yesterday though and your mood can change if you stay occupied and not dwell on what is bothering you. I am hopeful about tomorrow and about brighter things to come. I am fortunate I have an online journal to vent my anger which I can share with whoever wants to read my challenges. I did come across a website called (www.storiboard.co.uk) not mine may I add but a portal to share your stories.

Telling Your Story.

Anyone reading this who wants a platform to share their stories is more than welcome to subscribe here and I will make you a contributor or will manually upload your stories for you. It won’t cost you a penny only your time, it is completely free.

Domestic Violence.

I have gone through a lot over the last two decades (I won’t go into it all here but I am a ‘survivor of domestic violence‘ and and this is what drives me to tell my story) I won’t say I am strong all the time. I have good days and bad days and yesterday was a bad day for me but I know I will get over it. I am still standing and I won’t let anyone break me, sure they can try but when they knock me down and I get back up again so help me God.

I will be writing my biography soon and I will be calling out all the people that have done me wrong. Don’t misunderstand me, I am not awkward or vengeful, I just think some people deserve their five minutes of fame.

Superiority.

No one on this planet is better than you, we all do the same things, we eat, sleep and go to the bathroom, and we all cannot survive without water or air. We all have red blood and if Adam and Eve were the first people, then their children would have been inbred so we are all brothers and sisters. The world is an evil place with evil people living in it trying to suck the last ounce of happiness out of you. They should be very worried about what happens to them after they die. Just because some use 24kt Gold WCs does not make them any better than you. We all have the right to live on this planet in harmony and without having to worry about where the next paycheck is going to come from and if we can put food on the table. No one should fear for their lives or be killed for some political agenda. No one should lose their life for the sake of debt ceilings and deficit spending.

“The Hidden Secrets of Money” By Mile Maloney.

Invisible Disability.

I have an invisible disability and I expect to be acknowledged as a human being and not be judged, I expect people to give me the respect I deserve. I do not need anyone giving me advice, or being patronizing, after all when it comes to mental health I specialize in the subject hence why I built this site.

Never assume anything with me without asking me first.

I know if my finances improved so would my mental health. My cerebellum atrophy is incurable but with new drugs coming on the market anything is possible. I am staying positive and hopefully, someone reading this will invest in me.

One day soon you will learn what one particular “evil animal” did to me and how I am recovering.

I have audio recordings of all the death threats he made to me.

He is no longer residing in the UK, he left last December for Germany however within a month of him starting work he was fired due to an altercation with a woman at his place of work, why does that not surprise me.

Unfortunately, because he does not speak fluent English he was unable to set up an email address so I did it for him and forwarded all his emails to me for translation purposes with his consent, however, I have no access to his settings anymore, and cannot un-forward myself hence I get his emails and all the antics he is getting up to.

I use outlook and have blocked his email but people sending emails to him still come into my inbox. I have started marking them as spam as I have no other way of stopping any communication.

Remember not all that glitters is gold and that was my mistake and I have learned the hard way.

One day I will rise from the ashes and tell my full story.

Staying Positive.

Tomorrow is another day and I aim for a brighter future!

If you found this article insightful, please take a moment to share, comment, and subscribe. Also before you go, please also consider donating the equivalent of a cup of coffee to help keep this “Disability UK” Online Journal going.

#anxiety #stress #depression #lowselfesteem #mentalhealth #mentalhealthdisabilities #Centrica #JanaSiber

Blue Butterfly
Keep your business moving forward

Cerebellum Atrophy

Artists rendition of the human brain, showing the location of the cerebellum. (from Science Trends)

Cerebellar Atrophy.

Cerebellar Atrophy is something that has motivated me to do research and studies because I personally have been diagnosed with it.

My symptoms are: I lose balance and jumble my words up or miss them out completely when I speak and when I write. Thank God for ‘Grammarly.

Whilst cerebellar atrophy can be the cause of drinking heavily, I personally do not drink alcohol other than on social occasions. It can also be due to head trauma which I cannot rule out.

There is a close connection between Multiple Sclerosis (which my daughter has been diagnosed with) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (which I also suffer from) as I will explain further.

What is the cerebellum and what does it do ?

The cerebellum (“little brain”) is a structure that is located at the back of the brain, underlying the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum is involved in the following functions: Maintenance of balance and posture.

The cerebellum is part of the brain. It lies under the cerebral cortex, towards the back, behind the brainstem, and above the spinal cord. The cerebellum is largely involved in “coordination”. Persons whose cerebellum doesn’t work well are generally clumsy and unsteady. They may look like they are drunk even when they are not.

The cerebellum contains a lot of neurons. According to Hurculano-Houzel (2010), it contains about 80% of the neurons in the brain. So small in size, large in number. It must be doing something pretty important. The large neuron count probably is due to the more elaborate folding of the cerebellar cortex, as the neurons are mainly close to the periphery.

Cerebellar disorders are rare. They are often called “ataxias”. According to Musselman et al (2014), the prevalence of childhood ataxia is 26/100,000 children. Ataxia is rare compared to cerebral palsy (211/100,00) and autism (620/100,000).

Many cerebellar disorders are genetic in origin. In general, the prevalence of genetic disorders and especially autosomal recessive disorders is much higher in populations where there is more consanguinity. Examples of this include Quebec, Canada, and the Al-Kharga district in Egypt. There are also many acquired cerebellar disorders. For example, drinking too much alcohol for a long time causes a cerebellar disorder.

There are several key functions of the cerebellum, including:

  • Balance and posture
  • Mental function
  • Movement
  • Motor learning
  • Vision

Causes of Cerebellum Damage

Damage to the cerebellum, or to its connection to other parts of the nervous system, can be a result of trauma, health conditions, medications, and other factors, including:

  • Alcohol use disorder
  • Brain tumor
  • Head injury
  • Huntington’s disease
  • Infections
  • Lead or mercury poisoning
  • Medications, including benzodiazepines or barbiturates
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Stroke

Conditions That Affect the Cerebellum

When your cerebellum is damaged, nerve cells break down and die and can cause the following:

  • Ataxia:The loss of control of voluntary movement (e.g., the ability to move your body the way you want)
  • Cognitive impairment:A reduction in conscious mental activities, including thinking, learning, memory, and concentration
  • Dystonia: Involuntary contraction of muscles that normally work in cooperation so that a body part is held in an unusual and often painful position as a result
  • Tremors: Involuntary, rhythmic contraction of muscles that can lead to shaking movements in the hands, legs, face, head, or vocal cords
  • Unsteady gait:Walking unsteadily or clumsily (A person with an unsteady gait may appear intoxicated even if that’s not the case.)
  • Vertigo:The dizziness sensation of spinning, swaying, or tilting, which is frequently associated with balance problems and often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, or hearing loss

Diagnosis of Cerebellar disorders

The main clinical features of cerebellar disorders include incoordination, imbalance, and troubles with stabilizing eye movements. There are two distinguishable cerebellar syndromes — midline and hemispheric.

Midline cerebellar syndromes are characterized by imbalance. Persons are unsteady, they are unable to stand in Romberg with eyes open or closed, and are unable to well perform tandem gait. Severe midline disturbance causes “trunkal ataxia” a syndrome where a person is unable to sit on their bed without steadying themselves. Some persons have “titubation” or a bobbing motion of the head or trunk. Midline cerebellar disturbances also often affect eye movements. There may be nystagmus, ocular dysmetria, and poor pursuit.

Hemispheric cerebellar syndromes are characterized by incoordination of the limbs. There may be the decomposition of movement, dysmetria, and rebound. Dysdiadochokinesis is the irregular performance of rapid alternating movements. Intention tremors may be present in an attempt to touch an object. A kinetic tremor may be present in motion. The finger-to-nose and heel-to-knee tests are classic tests of hemispheric cerebellar dysfunction. While reflexes may be depressed initially with hemispheric cerebellar syndromes, this cannot be counted on. Speech may be dysarthric, scanning, or have an irregular emphasis on syllables.

Maintenance of balance and posture. The cerebellum is important for making postural adjustments in order to maintain balance. Through its input from vestibular receptors and proprioceptors, it modulates commands to motor neurons to compensate for shifts in body position or changes in load upon muscles. Patients with cerebellar damage suffer from balance disorders, and they often develop stereotyped postural strategies to compensate for this problem (e.g., a wide-based stance).

Coordination of voluntary movements. Most movements are composed of a number of different muscle groups acting together in a temporally coordinated fashion. One major function of the cerebellum is to coordinate the timing and force of these different muscle groups to produce fluid limb or body movements.

Motor learning. The cerebellum is important for motor learning. The cerebellum plays a major role in adapting and fine-tuning motor programs to make accurate movements through a trial-and-error process (e.g., learning to hit a baseball).

Cognitive functions. Although the cerebellum is most understood in terms of its contributions to motor control, it is also involved in certain cognitive functions, such as language. Thus, like the basal ganglia, the cerebellum is historically considered as part of the motor system, but its functions extend beyond motor control in ways that are not yet well understood.

Credit:

https://nba.uth.tmc.edu/neuroscience/m/s3/chapter05.html

Cerebellar Atrophy is one of the diagnostic features in PEHO syndrome (progressive encephalopathy with edema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy) and usually appears in the second year of life.

Symptoms of Cerebellar Atrophy.

The most characteristic symptom of cerebellar degeneration is a wide-based, unsteady, lurching walk, often accompanied by a back and forth tremor in the trunk of the body. Other symptoms may include slow, unsteady, and jerky movement of the arms or legs slowed and slurred speech, dizziness, lightheadedness, loss of balance, cognitive impairment, and nystagmus.

Credit:

https://dizziness-and-balance.com/disorders/central/cerebellar/cerebellar.htm

Cerebellar atrophy in the context of other disorders

Cerebellar Atrophy is the neuroradiological hallmark of many progressive ataxias of childhood. It is a nonspecific, yet useful neuroradiological sign (Poretti et al., 2008). Its differentiation from cerebellar hypoplasia can be difficult, especially if progression cannot be proven by repeated MRI. It is defined as a structurally normal cerebellum with enlarged interfolial spaces in a posterior fossa of normal size, while in cerebellar hypoplasia, the cerebellum is small and compact, without widened fissures between the foliae. Besides the hereditary ataxias, cerebellar atrophy can also be found in a multitude of other disorders, often, but not always, with additional neuroradiological abnormalities. If cerebellar atrophy is present, ataxia is often a clinical symptom, but this is not always the case. Hyperintensity of the cerebellar cortex in T2w images has been considered as pathognomonic for infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), but has also been demonstrated in Marinesco–Sjögren syndrome or mitochondrial disorders.

Prominent cerebellar atrophy is present in many of the neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, including metabolic disorders. It can be an isolated neuroradiological feature in juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis. In late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Niemann–Pick disease type C, it is usually accompanied by mild supratentorial atrophy. It is part of the neuroradiological abnormalities in many disorders of white matter, especially in hypomyelination of basal ganglia and cerebellum (HABC) and the 4H syndrome (hypomyelination, hypodontia, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). In white matter disorders, the MRI appearance of the white matter is mostly sufficiently specific to make a diagnosis. Cerebellar atrophy is one of the diagnostic features in PEHO syndrome (progressive encephalopathy with edema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy) and usually appears in the second year of life. Pontocerebellar atrophy is prominent in certain subtypes of the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), especially in CDG Ia which is a differential diagnosis for pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

Cerebellar Atrophy can also be acquired. Extreme prematurity can cause pontocerebellar atrophy. Acute cerebellitis and autoimmune disorders such as opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome can lead to cerebellar atrophy. More frequent causes of cerebellar atrophy are posterior fossa surgery or radiotherapy (Poretti et al., 2008).

Cerebellar Degeneration is a condition in which cerebellar cells, otherwise known as neurons, become damaged and progressively weaken in the cerebellum. There are two types of cerebellar degeneration; paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, and alcoholic or nutritional cerebellar degeneration. As the cerebellum contributes to the coordination and regulation of motor activities, as well as controlling the equilibrium of the human body, any degeneration to this part of the organ can be life-threatening. Cerebellar degeneration can result in disorders in fine movement, posture, and motor learning in humans, due to a disturbance of the vestibular system. This condition may not only cause cerebellar damage on a temporary or permanent basis, but can also affect other tissues of the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex, spinal cord, and the brainstem (made up of the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons).

Cerebellar Degeneration can be attributed to a plethora of hereditary and non-hereditary conditions. More commonly, cerebellar degeneration can also be classified according to conditions that an individual may acquire during their lifetime, including infectious, metabolic, autoimmune, paraneoplastic, nutritional, or toxic triggers.

Conclusions: Altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebral networks involved in cognitive-affective processing in patients with OCD provides further evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of OCD, and is consistent with impairment in executive control and emotion

Abstract

Background: The role of the cerebellum in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has drawn increasing attention. However, the functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex has not been investigated in OCD, nor has the relationship between such functional connectivity and clinical symptoms.

Methods: A total of 27 patients with OCD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on age, sex and education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seed-based connectivity analyses were performed to examine differences in cerebellar-cerebral connectivity in patients with OCD compared with HCs. Associations between functional connectivity and clinical features in OCD were analyzed.

Results: Compared with HCs, OCD patients showed significantly decreased cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity in executive control and emotion processing networks. Within the OCD group, decreased functional connectivity in an executive network spanning the right cerebellar Crus I and the inferior parietal lobule was positively correlated with symptom severity and decreased connectivity in an emotion processing network spanning the left cerebellar lobule VI and the lingual gyrus was negatively correlated with illness duration.

Cerebellar Atrophy & Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

Altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebral networks involved in cognitive-affective processing in patients with OCD provides further evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of OCD and is consistent with impairment in executive control and emotion regulation in this condition.

Keywords: Cerebellar circuits; executive control network; functional connectivity; obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Credit:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30058519/

Cerebellar Atrophy & Multiple Sclerosis.

Cerebellar atrophy is more extensive in patients with secondary progressive MS and those with longer disease duration when compared with people who have relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and/or shorter disease duration, and cerebellar atrophy has been shown to correlate with clinical measures of disability.

Credit:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281565/

Credit:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebellar_degeneration

#cerebellaratrophy #cerebellum #ms #ocd #multiplesclerosis #obsessivecompulsivedisorder #cerebellumatrophy

Coping With Life When You Are Disabled.

Copying With life When You Are Disabled.

I have this methology “if life gives you lemons, make lemonade”. I am not the type of person to whinge and moan, I just make the most of what I have and try to get on with it.

I always keep myself busy and set goals. However my physical and mental disabilities are obstacles that daily I have to get round.

My OCD is by far one of my prominent disabilities and have designed a quarantined cocoon area where only I have access to. This area allows me to be free of any anxieties that I would have in the normal environment. I have adopted this practice to save cleaning my whole home from top to bottom day in and day out. Believe me I used to clean from top to bottom every single day until I realised I was wasting valuable time doing something else.

Keeping myself busy does help to block out intrusive thoughts to a certain degree. I am the worlds worse for critising myself. I try to brain train to reason with myself that what I do is ridiculous and out of character to normal people, but it all is related to stress, anxiety and depression. Depending how stress I am under will depend how well my day will be. If I am super stressed, I find that I cannot concentrate and even do minuscule tasks.

My OCD is germ contamination related and I am even more conscious of my surrounding and the things that I touch. I dislike people visting me and visa versa. I prefer not to go out, hence I am not going out any time soon pandemic regulations or not.

I actually wrote an article on my other blog about germ awareness and cross contamination: https://marketingagency.cymrumarketing.com/2021/02/16/saliva-and-mail-cross-contamination-of-germs/

As for my other disabilities:

  • Cerebellar Atrophy (I lose my balance or grip and muddle my words up especially when I write, I also have mental blocks).
  • OCD (I am aware of germ cross contimination and and am careful what I touch).
  • Social Disconnection (I prefer my own company and not go out and socialise, although we can’t anyway but you get my drift).
  • PTSD (I have flashbacks of the physical and mental trauma I endured in the past and certain things trigger my depression).
  • Clinical Depression (This is related to past physical and mental trauma I endured, in which there are days where I go to a dark place).
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (I cannot bend my knee, again from past physical trauma/abuse).
  • Dysphagia (I sometimes choke of food, I get a painful feeling followed by trouble swallowing and breathing and only when the food is dislodged does the feeling subside, gross I know but what can I do? I have been told I could have surgery but there is no gauarantee that it would work. I am not going to go under the knife for anything, I can tell you that for sure).
  • Epidural Analgesia (Chronic Back Pain, even bending down to feed the cat makes my back spasm, the same goes if I am standing for excessive length of time I have shooting pains from the small of my back to the nape of my neck. Simple taskes like taking out the rubbish or bringing in the grocery shopping has brought tears to my eyes in the past).

So yes I have good days and bad days but I do not dwell on my ailments and try to live the best way I can. I adapt to around my disabilities. Fortuantely for me I offer digital services so I can do 100% of my work online and do not have to venture out.

Stress and worry are contributing factors to my OCD, PTSD, Depression and Social Disconnection.

  • Getting headaches (I have regular headaches)
  • Having stomach cramps (I have a bad stomach most days, but that can be from drinking energy drinks to keep me awake).
  • Not being able to sleep (I find my medication helps me sleep but it takes a few hours for me to wind down, hence I watch a film or play a game, I also read books from time to time).
  • Feeling pains in your chest (I do not get them often but when I do it is scary as I have also experienced jaw ache and shooting pain down my left arm in the past). I have had an ecg scan done and the doctor said there was nothing wrong, yet the same doctor also prescribed antacid ‘Gaviscon’ to my daughter even though she was later diagnosed with MS after I admitted her into A&E.
  • Having constant worring (If I do not keep myself busy I do worry hence I try to keep my mind occupied all the time). Worrying only makes your health deteriorate and although life struggles can get in the way of your happiness, one needs to find a way to tackle the problem we are faced with, rather than sweep them under the carpet. Confronting your inner demons makes you stronger. Sometimes simply writing down your problems is the first step to dealing with whatever is on your mind. Talking to a friend or family member also helps but for me expessing my emotions in the form of a blog is theraputic in itself.
  • Having panic attacks (I only get these if I have to meet negative people). People that judge or critise, you know the people I am talking about or if I have a deadline in work or something that I have seen or heard that has triggered the onset of sheer panic. However for most part I am organised and know to how to avoid trigger warnings, so panic attacks are subdued.
  • Feeling shortness of breath, (I only get this if I cannot swallow due to my Dysphagia or at times when I have in the past been in distress, due to the trauma and abuse I endured).
  • Having mood swings with friends or family (I avoid socialising so no one knows my moods and no one can be on the tail end if I do have a bad day).
  • Finding it hard to feel happy (Continuously reassuring myself and staying positive that what I am doing will eventually change my life for the better, is enough to motivate me to get up and tackle every day tasks).

Although I was going to do a daily/weekly journal of my health, I am not able to do so at present as I have many projects I am working on and simply do not have the time, but I always try to strive to stay focused and optimistic that tomorrow will be a better day.

Obviously adopting a healthy lifestyle can help with coping with life struggles, such as:

  • Regular Exercise
  • Breathing Exercise
  • Meditation
  • Eating Healthily
  • Brain Training
  • Learning New Things
  • Staying Focused
  • Being Organised
  • Setting Goals
  • Time Management
  • Avoiding Negative People
  • Learning to Trust People
  • Motivation
  • Talking to Family and Friends About Your Troubles
  • Discussing your Problems with Professionals, Health, Finance, Relationships etc

Final Thoughts!

I am a disabled entrepreneur and I have created a business round my disabilities. The way I saw it when I first started out, I would not fit in or be accepted in a normal working enviroment and I am the most happiest I have ever been for a long time doing what I do and it works for me. So the way I see it is my disabilities are a blessing in disguise, as I would not be where I am today without them.

I avoid negative judgemental people especially if they have power trips (Trolls especially that have nothing better to do than try an bring a person down, these get immediately blocked).

As for me I will help anyone that genuinely needs my help. I am very good at analysing people and situations and I am very astute.

Stay safe, stay focused and stay motivated, nothing stays the same forever unless you let it…

What is Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Amongst my knowledge of OCD and Cerebellar Atrophy I have been thrown into the deep end with Multiple Sclerosis. The reason for this, my daughter was diagonosed with it at the age of 15. It was a shock to the system for the both of us to learn about the disease, the diagnosis and what treatments there were and what are available.

At the time my daugher was put on Lemtrada (alemtuzumab).

I had concerns when I read that the treatment was still going ahead even though European Medicine Agency (EMA) had taken it off the market. The hospital and EMA said that no new patients would be having to drug but the patients already on it would have to finish the course.

RED TAPE!

I personally think there was political red tape and that is the reason the drug had to be continued with existing patients as it cost too much and was too complicated to get a refund, I may be wrong but no one has stepped up to correct me. If the drug had been bought upfront you could not exactly get your money back I suppose. I do not know how buying drug work, but I assume pharmaceutical companies get paid upfront as they have to make large batches, with expiry dates hence the NHS cannot return drugs once they have been manufactured in large quantities.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/medicines/human/referrals/lemtrada

Lemtrada suppresses the immune system for some time after a treatment course so people will be more vulnerable to infections such as colds and viruses.

LEMTRADA can cause serious side effects including:

Serious autoimmune problems:

Some people receiving LEMTRADA develop a condition where the immune cells in your body attack other cells or organs in the body (autoimmunity), which can be serious and may cause death.

Serious autoimmune problems may include:

  • Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), a condition of reduced platelet counts in your blood that can cause severe bleeding that may cause life‑threatening problems.
  • Call your healthcare provider (HCP) right away if you have any of the following symptoms: easy bruising; bleeding from a cut that is hard to stop; coughing up blood; heavier menstrual periods than normal; bleeding from your gums or nose that is new or takes longer than usual to stop; small, scattered spots on your skin that are red, pink, or purple
  • Kidney problems called anti‑glomerular basement membrane disease, which, if not treated, can lead to severe kidney damage, kidney failure that needs dialysis, a kidney transplant, or death.
  • Call your HCP right away if you have any of the following symptoms: swelling of your legs or feet; blood in the urine (red or tea‑colored urine); decrease in urine; fatigue; coughing up blood.

So its no suprise that On July 3, 2020 Sanofi Genzyme was notified that Lemtrada Home Phlebotomy Partner, Examination Management Services Inc., (EMSI) has gone out of business.

https://www.lemtrada.com/

Because of this, unfortunately, all future Lemtrada Home Phlebotomy (lab draw) visits from EMSI have been cancelled.

Patient safety is Sanofi Genzyme’s #1 priority (thats a joke if I ever heard one as my daughter was still administerd the drug after the EMA said it was unsafe) and they continued to say they are working to provide an alternative phlebotomy solution as well as coordinate alternative testing options for your next monthly lab tests.

This tells me that the company had to do refunds and the NHS here in the UK were slow and had already paid the doctors.

I wrote an article on my other blog how Doctors get a commission from pharmaceutical companies for promoting drugs.

You can read the article here:

https://marketingagency.cymrumarketing.com/2019/10/15/lemtrada-alemtuzumab-sanofi-genzyme/

Doctors receiving money from pharmaceutical companies.

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/06/30/individual-nhs-doctors-receiving-100000-per-year-from-drugs-firm/

I personally think when I first learned about this, that I was angry that the NHS knew the risk, yet used my daughter as a lab rat.

If you have any questions related to this announcement, please contact your healthcare provider or your One to One Nurse at (USA) 1-855-557-2483.

If you are in the UK contact your MS Team, or speak to the Ward Manager or Professor assigned to your case.

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Multiple Sclerosis is an auto-immune disease that attacks healthy white cells. The lesions that can affect the brain and spinal cord can cause a wide range of potential symptoms, including problems with vision, arm or leg movement, sensation or balance.

It is an incurable disease with lifelong symptoms that can sometimes cause serious disability, although it can occasionally be mild.

The average life expectancy is slightly reduced for people with MS and symptons can be alliviated with different courses of treatments.

In most cases, people get diagnosed in their 20s or 30s but it has been known the patients have shown symptoms as young as 15 years of age. In fact, it can develop at any age. It’s about 2 to 3 times more common in women than men.

MS is one of the most common causes of disability in younger adults.

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/multiple-sclerosis/symptoms/

The most common symptoms include:

Cerebellar atrophy

Cerebellar atrophy is associated with MS and is more extensive in patients with secondary progressive MS and those with longer disease duration when compared with people who have relapsing–remitting (RR) MS and/or shorter disease duration. Cerebellar atrophy has been shown to correlate with clinical measures of disability.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly affects the cerebellum causing acute and chronic symptoms. Cerebellar signs contribute significantly to clinical disability, and symptoms such as tremor, ataxia, and dysarthria are particularly difficult to treat.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281565/

For Further Information Contact the Following Links.

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/multiple-sclerosis/

https://www.nationalmssociety.org/What-is-MS

https://www.mssociety.org.uk/

https://www.webmd.com/multiple-sclerosis/default.htm

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-sclerosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20350269

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5487391/

https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/88/12/1065

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/jn.00245.2018

Dysphagia.

Dysphagia is the medical term for problems with swallowing food and drink.

Some people find it difficult to swallow certain foods or liquids, while others can’t swallow at all, other side effects include: coughing or choking when eating or drinking. bringing food back up, sometimes through the nose.

I know this may sound horrifying or even disgusting but on and off depending on what food I eat and if I have taken small bites will determine if I do not have the feeling I am choking and that food is stuck and won’t go up or down. This usually occurs if the food is dry and if I have taken large bites. Normally I have to chew my food like a cow chewing grass. Eventually, it gets monotonous and I lose the enjoyment of the food I eat. If only there was a pill form where you could choose your meat and veg and have the taste and nutrition plus the feeling you have had a slap-up meal all in one.

In fact, In 1936 the Jefferson City Post-Tribune ran an article recounting the views of Dr. Milton A Bridges of Columbia University. In it, he declared: “Human beings are never going to eat pills for meals” (why not? I would try it for certain) he went on to say “pills can never be made to contain sufficient caloric volume”.

Reading this I would find this would be an idyllic solution to my problem, popping a pill saving time sourcing the produce, cooking, and then chewing, not to mention losing weight in the process with the low-calorie count, how wonderful that would be. Imagine your gas or electric energy bill would also drop in the process. But this is not an ideal world and the Government and the Economy would be affected hence it is never going to happen, not in my lifetime anyway. This would also solve world hunger but one would need to have calories as our bodies need on average of 2000 calories per pay so we would have to pop around 400 pills per day just for calories alone. (My theory if that was the case would be to crush them and mix them up as a smoothy formula).

To think how many hours we waste shopping for groceries, packing and unpacking, preparing and cooking, and then sitting and eating for me I could be doing something else as time is precious. Imagine how much packaging we could eliminate from our lives whilst saving the planet in the process.

What is the likely cause of the dysphagia?

Certain disorders such as multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and Parkinson’s disease can cause dysphagia. Neurological damage. Sudden neurological damage, such as from a stroke or brain or spinal cord injury, can affect your ability to swallow.

I wonder if this may be linked to Cerebellar Atrophy & Epidural Analgesia? I am not an expert but it seems a bit of a coincidence that I have the above ailments and find it difficult to swallow at times.

How to Treat Dysphagia includes:

  1. Exercises your swallowing muscles.
  2. Evaluate your Diet and perhaps change the foods you eat. (Don’t know if there is a recipe for a full english breakfast smoothy).
  3. Dilation.
  4. Endoscopy. ( I had this proceedure done they made me swallow barium and then they stuck a camera down my throat), besides this is for diagnosis purposes and not for ment as a cure.
  5. Surgery. (Not guaranteed to be a successful and you may have to repeated surgeries).
  6. Medicines. ( I have been prescribed Gaviscon Advanced Mint tablets, as I suffer with acid reflux which is also associated Dysphagia.

Further reading can be found here:

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/swallowing-problems-dysphagia/