Cerebellar degeneration is a condition in which cerebellar cells, otherwise known as neurons, become damaged and progressively weaken in the cerebellum. There are two types of cerebellar degeneration; paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, and alcoholic or nutritional cerebellar degeneration.
Cerebellar atrophy is one of the diagnostic features in PEHO syndrome (progressive encephalopathy with edema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy) and usually appears in the second year of life.
Conclusions: Altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebral networks involved in cognitive-affective processing in patients with OCD provides further evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of OCD, and is consistent with impairment in executive control and emotion
Cerebellar atrophy is more extensive in patients with secondary progressive MS and those with longer disease duration when compared with people who have relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and/or shorter disease duration, and cerebellar atrophy has been shown to correlate with clinical measures of disability.
The Link Between Multiple Sclerosis & Cerebellar Atrophy
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a complex and unpredictable neurological disease that affects millions of people worldwide. While it is primarily characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS), the impact of MS extends far beyond the traditional understanding of the disease. Cerebellar atrophy, a condition involving the degeneration of the cerebellum, has gained attention in recent years as a significant neurological complication of MS. In this article, we will explore the link between multiple sclerosis and cerebellar atrophy, shedding light on the mechanisms, symptoms, and implications of this less-understood aspect of the disease.
Understanding Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective myelin sheath that covers nerve fibers within the CNS, leading to inflammation and damage. This damage can disrupt the normal flow of electrical impulses along nerve fibers, causing a wide range of neurological symptoms. The most common symptoms of MS include fatigue, difficulty walking, numbness or tingling, muscle weakness, and problems with coordination and balance. Over time, these symptoms can worsen and lead to significant disability.
The Cerebellum and Its Role
The cerebellum is a critical part of the brain located at the back of the head, just above the brainstem. It plays a crucial role in coordinating voluntary movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills. Additionally, the cerebellum contributes to cognitive functions like attention, language processing, and emotional regulation.
The Link between MS and Cerebellar Atrophy
Cerebellar atrophy is a condition characterized by the degeneration or shrinkage of the cerebellum. This phenomenon has been observed in a significant number of individuals with multiple sclerosis, and research has begun to shed light on the connection between the two conditions.
Inflammatory Processes: MS is primarily an inflammatory disease, and the inflammatory processes occurring within the CNS can extend to the cerebellum. This inflammation can disrupt the normal functioning of the cerebellum and contribute to its atrophy.
Demyelination: The demyelination of nerve fibers in the cerebellum, caused by MS, can lead to a loss of communication between neurons. This disruption in signaling can result in impaired coordination, balance, and motor skills, which are characteristic symptoms of cerebellar atrophy.
Neuronal Damage: In MS, not only the myelin but also the underlying neurons can be damaged. The loss of neurons within the cerebellum can further contribute to its atrophy and functional impairment.
Symptoms of Cerebellar Atrophy in MS Patients
The presence of cerebellar atrophy in individuals with MS can lead to a distinct set of symptoms, including:
Ataxia: Ataxia refers to a lack of coordination and balance, making everyday movements like walking and reaching for objects challenging.
Dysarthria: This condition affects speech and results in slurred or poorly articulated speech patterns.
Tremors: Tremors or shaky movements may occur, particularly when trying to perform fine motor tasks.
Cognitive Changes: Some individuals may experience changes in cognitive function, such as difficulties with concentration, attention, and problem-solving.
Fatigue: The increased effort required to perform even simple tasks due to ataxia and other symptoms can contribute to fatigue, a common symptom in both MS and cerebellar atrophy.
Implications and Treatment
The presence of cerebellar atrophy in MS patients can complicate the clinical course of the disease. It may lead to more severe disability and impact the overall quality of life for those affected. Therefore, it is crucial for healthcare providers to recognize and address cerebellar atrophy in MS patients.
Treatment approaches for cerebellar atrophy in MS are often focused on managing symptoms and improving overall function. This may include physical therapy to enhance coordination and balance, medications to address specific symptoms like tremors or spasticity, and speech therapy for individuals with dysarthria.
While the primary hallmark of multiple sclerosis is the inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, it is essential to recognize the broader impact of this disease on various parts of the brain. Cerebellar atrophy, a condition involving the degeneration of the cerebellum, is a significant complication that can worsen the clinical course of MS. Understanding the link between multiple sclerosis and cerebellar atrophy is crucial for healthcare providers to provide comprehensive care and improve the quality of life for individuals living with this challenging neurological condition. Further research into the mechanisms underlying this connection may pave the way for more targeted therapies in the future.
Black mold, also known as Stachybotrys chartarum, is a type of fungus that can grow indoors under conditions of high humidity and moisture. It is often characterized by its dark green or black color, and it typically has a slimy or powdery texture. Black mold is notorious for its potential health risks and its association with poor indoor air quality.
While not all molds that appear black are Stachybotrys chartarum, this specific type of mold has gained attention due to the production of mycotoxins, which are toxic substances that can be harmful to human health. When people are exposed to these mycotoxins, either through inhalation or direct contact with the mold spores, it can lead to various health issues, including multiple sclerosis and neurological disorders, cerebellar atrophy, respiratory problems, allergies, and weakened immune systems.
Symptoms of exposure to black mold and its mycotoxins can include:
Respiratory problems: This can include symptoms like coughing, sneezing, wheezing, congestion, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat.
Skin irritation: Direct contact with mold spores can lead to skin rashes, itching, and irritation.
Allergic reactions: Some individuals may experience allergic reactions such as runny nose, watery eyes, and skin itching.
Asthma exacerbation: People with asthma may find that exposure to black mold worsens their symptoms or triggers asthma attacks.
Immune system effects: Prolonged exposure to mycotoxins from black mold could potentially weaken the immune system over time.
Brain Inflammation: also known as neuroinflammation, can be triggered by various factors, including infections, injuries, autoimmune conditions, and certain environmental exposures.
It’s important to note that not all individuals will react to black mold in the same way, and the severity of health effects can vary widely. If you suspect you have a black mold problem in your home, it’s advisable to address the issue promptly by identifying the source of moisture, fixing leaks, improving ventilation, and removing the mold safely. In cases of extensive mold growth, it might be necessary to seek professional assistance for proper remediation.
How Dangerous Is Black Mold?
Black mold, specifically Stachybotrys chartarum, has gained a reputation for being potentially dangerous due to the mycotoxins it produces. Mycotoxins are toxic substances that can have adverse effects on human health. However, it’s important to understand that the danger associated with black mold can vary depending on factors such as the individual’s sensitivity, the extent of exposure, and their overall health.
For most healthy individuals, brief and limited exposure to black mold is not likely to cause serious harm. Minor symptoms like allergic reactions, such as sneezing, coughing, or skin irritation, might occur. However, for certain groups of people, black mold exposure can be more concerning:
People with Allergies: Individuals who are already predisposed to allergies might experience more pronounced reactions when exposed to mold spores, including those from black mold.
Individuals with Respiratory Issues: People with asthma or other respiratory conditions might experience worsened symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, when exposed to mold.
Immune-Compromised Individuals: Those with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly, infants, or individuals undergoing treatments that suppress the immune system, could be at a higher risk of experiencing more severe health effects from mold exposure.
Prolonged Exposure: Long-term exposure to high levels of black mold and its mycotoxins could potentially lead to more serious health problems, such as respiratory infections or chronic inflammation.
It’s worth noting that while the term “black mold” is often used to refer to Stachybotrys chartarum, not all molds that are black in color are necessarily this specific type. Visual identification alone is not sufficient to determine the potential danger of mold. If you suspect you have mold growth in your home, it’s advisable to take precautions regardless of the color and to address the moisture issue causing the mold growth. If you or your family members are experiencing health symptoms that you suspect are related to mold exposure, it’s a good idea to consult a medical professional.
In any case, it’s important to address mold issues promptly, improve ventilation, and maintain a dry environment to prevent mold growth and potential health risks. If you suspect extensive mold growth in your home, especially in areas larger than about 10 square feet, it’s recommended to seek professional assistance for safe and effective remediation.
Mold has been tied to multiple sclerosis (MS), specifically, a couple of species found in water-affected buildings, including the common “black mold”. Mycotoxins produced by molds have been shown to damage cells in the central nervous system, including the cells that support myelin. Toxic mold can cause a chronic inflammatory response such as multiple sclerosis. Mold can also trigger or exacerbate autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism, multiple sclerosis, vitiligo, cerebellar atrophy and more. Multiple Sclerosis Caused by Mold and Mercury Toxicity – Dr. Todd Maderis (drtoddmaderis.com)
Individuals, particularly those with compromised immune systems or underlying respiratory conditions, could potentially experience severe health complications as a result of prolonged and significant exposure to mycotoxins produced by certain types of molds, including black mold.
In most cases, the symptoms and health effects associated with mold exposure are not life-threatening and can be managed by addressing the mold problem, improving indoor air quality, and seeking medical attention if necessary. The severity of health risks from mold exposure varies widely based on factors such as an individual’s sensitivity, the extent of exposure, the specific type of mold involved, and the individual’s overall health.
It’s important to focus on prevention and addressing mold issues promptly to mitigate potential health risks. If you suspect that you or others in your household are experiencing severe health symptoms due to mold exposure, it’s crucial to consult a medical professional for proper evaluation and advice.
Remember that while black mold has been associated with certain health risks, not all molds that appear black are Stachybotrys chartarum, and the color alone is not a definitive indicator of danger. If you’re concerned about mold growth in your home, it’s recommended to take appropriate steps to identify and address the issue, including maintaining good ventilation, managing humidity levels, and addressing water leaks promptly.
The Connection Between Black Mold & Neurological Disorders
The connection between black mold (Stachybotrys chartarum) and neurological disorders is an area of ongoing research. Exposure to mold, including black mold, can lead to a range of health symptoms, including respiratory issues, allergies, and skin irritations. Some individuals have reported experiencing neurological symptoms such as headaches, memory problems, mood changes, and difficulty concentrating after exposure to mold.
Some studies have explored and found the potential for mycotoxins produced by molds, including black mold, to have neurological effects.
Yes, if you have a significant black mold (Stachybotrys chartarum) infestation in your home, it’s generally recommended to have it removed professionally. Black mold can produce mycotoxins that can potentially be harmful to human health, and improper removal can lead to the spread of mold spores and mycotoxins, causing further contamination and health risks.
Professional mold remediation specialists have the expertise, equipment, and training to safely and effectively remove mold from your property. Here are some reasons why professional removal is often advisable:
Assessment and Identification: Professionals can accurately assess the extent of mold growth, identify the type of mold, and determine the source of moisture causing the growth.
Containment: Professionals use containment measures to prevent the spread of mold spores to unaffected areas during the removal process.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Mold removal involves exposure to potentially harmful substances. Professionals use proper PPE to protect themselves and prevent cross-contamination.
Safe Removal: Professionals follow industry-standard protocols for removing mold safely and thoroughly, minimizing the risk of exposure to occupants.
Proper Disposal: Mold-contaminated materials need to be properly disposed of to prevent further contamination. Professionals know how to handle and dispose of these materials correctly.
Prevention: Professionals can help identify and address the underlying moisture issues that led to mold growth, reducing the risk of future infestations.
Health and Safety: Mold removal professionals prioritize the health and safety of both occupants and workers during the remediation process.
For small areas of mold growth (less than about 10 square feet), you may be able to handle the cleanup yourself using appropriate protective measures and following guidelines from reputable sources. However, if you have underlying medical conditions it is not advisable to remove the mold yourself, which you could cross contaninate other areas and potentially risk your health. If the mold infestation is extensive, if you have underlying health concerns, or if you’re unsure about the best approach, it’s recommended to consult a professional mold remediation company.
When hiring a professional, be sure to choose a reputable and experienced company that follows industry best practices for mold removal and abatement. Always get multiple quotes and check for references to ensure you’re making an informed decision.
Should A Tenant Be Made To Remove The Black Mold Themselves?
No, tenants should not be made to remove black mold (or any type of mold) themselves. Mold remediation and removal should be the responsibility of the landlord or property owner, as it involves health and safety risks and requires specialized knowledge and equipment.
Landlords have a legal obligation to provide safe and habitable living conditions for their tenants. If there is mold growth in a rental property, it’s the landlord’s responsibility to address the issue promptly and effectively. Making tenants remove mold themselves can potentially expose them to health risks, and it could also result in improper removal practices that lead to the spread of mold spores and mycotoxins.
Here are a few reasons why landlords or property owners should handle mold remediation:
Health and Safety: Mold removal can involve exposure to potentially harmful substances. Trained professionals have the necessary equipment and expertise to perform the removal safely.
Prevention of Liability: If tenants remove mold improperly and suffer health issues as a result, landlords could potentially face legal liability.
Corrective Measures: Mold growth is often a sign of an underlying moisture problem. Professionals can address the source of moisture and take corrective actions to prevent future mold growth.
Expertise: Professionals can accurately assess the extent of the problem and ensure that all affected areas are properly addressed.
If you are a tenant and you discover mold in your rental property, you should promptly notify your landlord or property manager about the issue. Document the situation with photographs and written communication. The landlord should then arrange for a professional mold inspection and remediation if necessary.
If a landlord is unresponsive or does not take appropriate action to address the mold issue, tenants may need to check their local laws and regulations, as well as the terms of their lease agreement, to determine their rights and potential courses of action. In many jurisdictions, tenants have rights to habitable living conditions and can take legal steps if their landlord does not fulfill their responsibilities.
Washing with soapy water and bleach removes mold temporarily.
Landlords Guide To Dealing With Mold. A tenant cannot open windows in the winter to ventilate the property and lose heat.
If extractor fans are not working and have not been checked by the electrical safety inspection then it is the fault of the landlord to make sure they are in working order.
Should Landlords Have Black Mold Testing Done?
Whether or not landlords should have black mold testing done depends on the specific situation and the presence of visible mold or mold-related health concerns in the rental property. Here are some considerations to keep in mind:
Visible Mold Growth: If there is visible mold growth in the property, especially if it’s extensive or in areas that are not easily accessible, it’s generally a good idea to have a professional mold inspection and testing conducted. This can help determine the extent of the issue and guide appropriate remediation measures.
Tenant Health Concerns: If tenants are experiencing health issues that they suspect may be related to mold exposure, or if they have reported mold growth, it’s important for landlords to take these concerns seriously and consider arranging for mold testing.
Unknown Water Damage: If the property has a history of water leaks, flooding, or other moisture issues that may have gone unnoticed, mold testing can help identify hidden mold growth.
Property History: If the property has a history of recurring mold problems, previous water damage incidents, or insufficient ventilation, mold testing might help assess the ongoing risk of mold growth.
Pre-Purchase or Routine Inspections: If landlords are considering purchasing a property or want to conduct routine inspections, mold testing can help identify potential issues before they become larger problems.
It’s important to note that mold testing should be conducted by qualified professionals who have experience in mold inspection and testing. Testing methods can include air sampling, surface sampling, and moisture readings. A thorough inspection will involve identifying the source of moisture, assessing the extent of mold growth, and providing recommendations for remediation if needed.
However, it’s not always necessary to conduct mold testing in every situation. In cases of minor mold growth in easily accessible areas that can be remedied quickly, testing may not be required. Landlords should also be cautious about relying solely on DIY mold testing kits, as the accuracy of these kits can vary.
If you’re a landlord, the safety and well-being of your tenants should be a top priority. If there are concerns about mold growth, it’s advisable to consult with professionals who specialize in mold inspection and remediation to determine the best course of action for your specific situation.
Preventing black mold (Stachybotrys chartarum) and other types of mold growth in your home involves managing moisture and maintaining good indoor air quality. Here are some effective preventive measures you can take:
Control Moisture: Mold thrives in damp environments. Addressing moisture issues is key to preventing mold growth.
Fix leaks promptly: Repair any leaks in roofs, windows, pipes, and faucets.
Proper ventilation: Ensure good ventilation in areas prone to moisture, such as bathrooms, kitchens, and basements. Use exhaust fans and open windows when possible.
Dehumidifiers: Use dehumidifiers in areas with high humidity to keep moisture levels under control.
Proper landscaping: Ensure that the grading around your home directs water away from the foundation.
Regular Cleaning: Regular cleaning can help prevent mold growth by removing dust, dirt, and organic matter that mold feeds on.
Clean and dry spills: Clean up spills and messes promptly to prevent moisture accumulation.
Clean appliances: Regularly clean and maintain appliances like air conditioners and refrigerators to prevent moisture buildup.
Use exhaust fans: Use exhaust fans in the kitchen and bathroom to remove excess moisture generated during cooking and showering.
Air circulation: Allow air to circulate by keeping doors and windows open when weather permits.
Monitor Humidity Levels: Keep indoor humidity levels between 30% and 50% to discourage mold growth. You can use a hygrometer to measure humidity.
Address Water Damage Quickly:
If your home experiences water damage from leaks, floods, or heavy rain, address it promptly and thoroughly dry the affected areas.
Properly insulate your home to prevent condensation on surfaces, which can create a conducive environment for mold growth.
Seal and Insulate:
Seal gaps and cracks in walls, windows, and doors to prevent moisture infiltration.
Insulate cold surfaces to prevent condensation.
Regular Home Maintenance:
Regularly inspect your home for signs of leaks, water damage, or mold growth, and address any issues promptly.
Store Items Properly:
Store items in dry, well-ventilated areas and avoid overstuffing closets or basements.
Clutter can trap moisture and provide hiding spots for mold. Keep your living spaces organized and clutter-free.
Remember that preventing mold growth is an ongoing process that requires vigilance. By maintaining a dry and well-ventilated home and addressing moisture issues promptly, you can significantly reduce the risk of black mold and other types of mold from taking hold in your living environment.
Install an air conditioner with a high-efficiency particulate air filter — better known as a HEPA filter — to remove mold spores from the air
Add mold inhibitors to paints to stop mold growth on walls and ceilings
Don’t paint over mold. Clean the area and allow it to dry before painting with special paint.
Black mold, scientifically known as Stachybotrys chartarum, is a type of fungus that grows in damp and humid environments. It’s known for its dark green or black appearance and often thrives on materials like wood, paper, clothing, furniture and drywall. Black mold can produce mycotoxins, which are toxic compounds that can pose health risks to humans.
Exposure to black mold and its mycotoxins can lead to various health effects, especially for individuals with respiratory conditions, allergies, or weakened immune systems. Common symptoms of exposure include respiratory issues like coughing and wheezing, allergic reactions such as skin rashes and watery eyes, and potential exacerbation of asthma symptoms. In severe cases and over extended exposure periods, more serious health problems might arise.
Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by certain types of fungi, commonly known as molds. These compounds are byproducts of fungal metabolism and serve various functions for the mold itself, such as helping it compete with other microorganisms. However, mycotoxins can be harmful to human health when they are ingested, inhaled, or come into direct contact with the skin.
Mycotoxins can be found in foods, indoor environments, and agricultural products, and they can persist even if the mold that produced them is no longer visible. Some molds that are known to produce mycotoxins include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Stachybotrys.
Exposure to mycotoxins can lead to a range of health effects, depending on the specific mycotoxin and the level of exposure. Symptoms can vary widely and may include respiratory issues, skin irritation, allergic reactions, neurological symptoms, and more severe health problems in certain cases.
It’s important to note that not all molds produce mycotoxins, and not all individuals will experience health effects from mycotoxin exposure. However, due to the potential risks, it’s advisable to prevent and address mold growth in indoor environments and to take appropriate precautions if you suspect mycotoxin exposure, especially if you or your family members have sensitivities or health conditions that could be exacerbated by mold-related toxins.
While not everyone exposed to black mold will experience health issues, it’s important to address mold growth promptly to prevent potential risks. Removing black mold should be done professionally, as improper removal can worsen the situation by spreading mold spores and mycotoxins. Prevention involves managing indoor moisture levels, maintaining proper ventilation, and promptly addressing leaks and water damage.
In summary, black mold can pose health risks due to its potential to produce harmful mycotoxins. Timely identification, professional removal, and preventive measures are crucial to safeguarding both indoor air quality and human well-being.
Dyslexia is a neurological disorder that affects a person’s ability to read, write, spell, and sometimes even speak. It is a common learning disability that affects approximately 1 in 10 people worldwide. Dyslexia can vary in severity, with some people experiencing mild difficulties, while others struggle with severe challenges.
Dyslexia is a lifelong condition that often runs in families. It is not a result of poor teaching, lack of intelligence, or vision problems. Instead, it is caused by a difference in the way the brain processes language. People with dyslexia have difficulty processing the sounds that makeup words, which can make it challenging to decode written words and understand what they mean.
One of the main characteristics of dyslexia is difficulty with phonemic awareness, which is the ability to recognize and manipulate the individual sounds in words. For example, a person with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing that the word “cat” is made up of three separate sounds: “k”, “a”, and “t.” This can make it challenging to sound out words and understand their meaning.
Another common characteristic of dyslexia is difficulty with reading fluency. People with dyslexia may read slowly and struggle to keep up with their peers. They may also have difficulty with comprehension, as they struggle to make sense of the words they are reading.
Dyslexia can also affect a person’s ability to write and spell. People with dyslexia may have difficulty with grammar and syntax, and they may struggle to organize their thoughts into written sentences and paragraphs.
It is important to note that dyslexia is not related to intelligence. Many people with dyslexia are highly intelligent and talented in other areas, such as art, music, or athletics. However, because dyslexia affects reading and writing, it can have a significant impact on a person’s academic performance and self-esteem.
Fortunately, there are many strategies and accommodations that can help people with dyslexia overcome their challenges and succeed in school and in life. For example, some people with dyslexia benefit from multi-sensory learning techniques, which engage multiple senses (such as sight, sound, and touch) to help reinforce learning. Others may benefit from assistive technology, such as text-to-speech software or speech recognition software.
It is also important for educators, parents, and other caregivers to be aware of the signs of dyslexia and to provide appropriate support and accommodations. Early identification and intervention can make a significant difference in a person’s ability to succeed academically and in life.
Why Do People Have Dyslexia
The exact cause of dyslexia is not fully understood, research has shed some light on why people have dyslexia.
One theory is that dyslexia is caused by a difference in the way the brain processes language. Specifically, people with dyslexia have difficulty processing the sounds that makeup words, which can make it challenging to decode written words and understand what they mean. This difficulty with phonemic awareness is thought to be caused by differences in brain structure and function.
Recent research has identified specific regions of the brain that are involved in reading and language processing, and studies have shown that these regions function differently in people with dyslexia. For example, studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that the areas of the brain that are responsible for processing sounds and connecting them to written words are less active in people with dyslexia.
There is also evidence to suggest that genetics may play a role in the development of dyslexia. Studies have shown that dyslexia often runs in families and that there are certain genes that may be associated with the condition. However, it is important to note that genetics is not the only factor involved in the development of dyslexia and that environmental factors may also play a role.
Environmental factors that may contribute to dyslexia include exposure to toxins or infections during pregnancy, as well as early childhood experiences such as lack of exposure to language or poor nutrition. However, it is important to note that these factors do not directly cause dyslexia but rather may contribute to the development of the condition in individuals who are already predisposed to it due to genetics or other factors.
It is also worth noting that dyslexia is not related to intelligence. Many people with dyslexia are highly intelligent and talented in other areas, such as art, music, or athletics. However, because dyslexia affects reading and writing, it can have a significant impact on a person’s academic performance and self-esteem.
While the exact cause of dyslexia is not fully understood, research has shed some light on the differences in brain structure and function that contribute to the condition. With the right support and accommodations, people with dyslexia can overcome their challenges and succeed in school and in life.
How People Cope With Dyslexia
Coping with dyslexia can be challenging for individuals and their families, but there are several resources available to help them manage the condition.
People with dyslexia may experience difficulties with phonemic awareness, word decoding, reading fluency, and spelling. They may also struggle with memory, time management, and organization skills. These challenges can impact academic performance, social interactions, and self-esteem.
One of the most effective ways to cope with dyslexia is to seek appropriate interventions and accommodations. Some individuals with dyslexia may benefit from specialized tutoring or instruction that focuses on phonics, fluency, comprehension, and writing skills. Others may require assistive technology such as text-to-speech software, speech recognition software, or electronic spell-checkers.
In addition to academic support, people with dyslexia may also benefit from emotional and psychological support. Many individuals with dyslexia experience feelings of frustration, anxiety, and depression as a result of their struggles with reading and writing. Seeking therapy or counseling can help them develop coping strategies and improve their self-esteem.
There are also several organizations and resources available to support individuals with dyslexia and their families. The International Dyslexia Association is a nonprofit organization that provides resources, support, and advocacy for individuals with dyslexia. They offer conferences, workshops, and online resources for parents, educators, and individuals with dyslexia.
The National Center for Learning Disabilities is another organization that offers support and resources for individuals with dyslexia and other learning disabilities. They offer a free online resource called “Understood” which provides personalized resources and support for families and individuals with learning and attention issues.
There are also several assistive technology options available for individuals with dyslexia. Text-to-speech software, such as Read&Write or Kurzweil, can help individuals with dyslexia read and comprehend text more easily. Speech recognition software, such as Dragon Naturally Speaking, can help individuals with dyslexia write more efficiently.
Dyslexia can be challenging to cope with, but there are many resources available to support individuals with dyslexia and their families. Organizations such as the International Dyslexia Association and the National Center for Learning Disabilities offer valuable resources and support for individuals with dyslexia and their families.
How Children Should Be Supported With Dyslexia
Dyslexia can be frustrating and challenging for children who have dyslexia, but with the right support, they can thrive academically and personally.
Here are some ways that children with dyslexia can be supported:
Early intervention: Early intervention is crucial for children with dyslexia. The earlier a child is diagnosed, the earlier they can receive support and interventions to help them learn to read and write. Dyslexia can be identified as early as preschool age, so it’s important to be aware of the signs and symptoms and seek out an evaluation if you suspect your child may have dyslexia.
Multisensory learning: Children with dyslexia often have difficulty with phonics and decoding words. Multisensory learning, which engages multiple senses such as sight, sound, touch, and movement, can be helpful for these children. Multisensory learning techniques can include using sandpaper letters, tracing letters in the air, and using colored overlays to reduce visual stress.
Assistive technology: There are many assistive technology tools that can help children with dyslexia. Text-to-speech software can read text aloud, which can be helpful for children who struggle with reading. Speech-to-text software can be used to help children with dyslexia write, as they can dictate their thoughts instead of having to write them down. Dyslexia-friendly fonts and formatting can also make reading and writing easier for children with dyslexia.
Accommodations in the classroom: Children with dyslexia may benefit from accommodations in the classroom, such as extra time on tests, access to audiobooks, and having instructions written out or read aloud. Teachers can also provide explicit instruction in phonics and decoding, and use multisensory techniques to reinforce learning.
Emotional support: Children with dyslexia may struggle with feelings of frustration, anxiety, and low self-esteem. It’s important for parents and teachers to provide emotional support to these children, and help them understand that dyslexia does not define them or their abilities. Encouragement, positive feedback, and celebrating small successes can go a long way in boosting a child’s confidence and self-esteem.
How AI Can Help With Dyslexia
Dyslexia can make learning challenging, and it can have a significant impact on a person’s academic and professional success.
The good news is that with the help of AI (Artificial Intelligence), people with dyslexia can now receive personalized assistance to improve their reading and writing skills. AI has opened up new opportunities for people with dyslexia to access the support they need to succeed.
Here are some ways AI can help with dyslexia:
Speech Recognition: AI technology can help people with dyslexia by converting speech to text. This technology can help dyslexic students with their writing assignments, making it easier for them to communicate their ideas in written form. Speech recognition software is also helpful for those who have difficulty with spelling and grammar.
Text-to-Speech: Text-to-speech (TTS) technology can help people with dyslexia by reading text aloud. This technology can help dyslexic students who struggle with reading comprehension, and it can also be used to proofread written assignments. TTS software can also be customized to read at different speeds, which can be helpful for people who have difficulty processing information quickly.
Spelling and Grammar Checkers: AI-powered spelling and grammar checkers can help people with dyslexia by identifying and correcting spelling and grammatical errors. These tools can be used in conjunction with speech recognition and TTS software to improve writing skills.
Personalized Learning: AI technology can provide personalized learning experiences for people with dyslexia. AI-powered adaptive learning platforms can identify a student’s strengths and weaknesses and provide customized lessons that focus on the areas where the student needs the most help. These platforms can also track progress and adjust the learning experience as required.
Virtual Assistants: Virtual assistants like Amazon’s Alexa and Apple’s Siri can be helpful for people with dyslexia. These assistants can perform tasks like setting reminders, scheduling appointments, and sending messages without the need for written communication.
Are cerebellar atrophy and dyslexia linked?
Cerebellar atrophy is a neurological disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of the cerebellum, a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in the coordination and control of movement. Dyslexia, on the other hand, is a learning disability that affects a person’s ability to read, write, and spell. While these two conditions may seem unrelated, there is evidence to suggest that there is a link between cerebellar atrophy and dyslexia.
The cerebellum is responsible for a range of motor functions, such as balance, coordination, and precision movements. However, research has shown that it is also involved in cognitive functions, such as language processing, attention, and working memory. One study found that children with dyslexia have smaller cerebellar volumes compared to their non-dyslexic peers, suggesting that the cerebellum plays a role in reading and language processing.
Another study used MRI scans to investigate the link between cerebellar atrophy and dyslexia. The researchers found that individuals with cerebellar atrophy had more severe reading difficulties compared to those without cerebellar atrophy, indicating that the cerebellum may play a role in the development of dyslexia.
The cerebellum is also connected to other parts of the brain that are involved in language processing, such as the frontal and temporal lobes. Some researchers believe that cerebellar atrophy can disrupt the communication between these brain regions, leading to difficulties in language processing and ultimately contributing to dyslexia.
Furthermore, research has shown that the cerebellum is involved in phonological processing, which is essential for the development of reading skills. Phonological processing involves the ability to manipulate and recognize sounds in language, which is a fundamental skill for reading. It has been suggested that cerebellar dysfunction can impair phonological processing, leading to difficulties in reading and dyslexia.
Dyslexia is a common learning disability that affects a person’s ability to read, write, and spell. It is a neurological condition that is not related to intelligence and can have a significant impact on a person’s academic performance and self-esteem. However, with the right support and accommodations, people with dyslexia can overcome their challenges and succeed in school and in life.
Children with dyslexia can thrive with the right support and interventions. Early intervention, multisensory learning, assistive technology, accommodations in the classroom, and emotional support are all important ways that children with dyslexia can be supported. With these tools and strategies, children with dyslexia can overcome their challenges and reach their full potential.
AI technology has the potential to revolutionize the way people with dyslexia learn and communicate. With the help of AI-powered tools like speech recognition, TTS software, spelling and grammar checkers, personalized learning platforms, and virtual assistants, people with dyslexia can receive the support they need to succeed academically and professionally. AI technology is still evolving, and there is still much work in this field. However, the potential for AI to help people with dyslexia is tremendous, and we are just beginning to scratch the surface of what is possible.
There is evidence to suggest that cerebellar atrophy and dyslexia are linked. While more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between the two conditions, these findings have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslexia. Identifying cerebellar atrophy in individuals with dyslexia may help to develop more targeted interventions that address the underlying neurological factors contributing to the disorder.
Final Notes From The Editor:
We have a text-to-speech widget already implemented on this site and plan to have our own ChatAI Bot soon www.renataai.com. We also have the domain name www.dyslexiaai.co.ukfor organizations in the UK. We also offer a service to write content for people that might find writing challenging.
Dyslexia is a specialized subject and this domain would suit any organization with support on their websites. We can build a site that has AI integrated to help readers in their personal development. All dyslexia charities and self-help sites would benefit from having an AI widget on their site.
Can stress cause your cerebellar atrophy to get worse?
The link between the cerebellum is connected with stress-related brain areas and expresses the machinery required to process stress-related neurochemical mediators.
As most of my readers already know I suffer from ‘Cerebellar Atrophy’. Other than jumbling my letters and words up when I am writing (thank God for Grammarly) and occasionally memory loss, hence I have to jot things down to help me remember, I also have noticed lately an increase in loss of balance.
In fact ironically with what I am about to tell you, just over a year ago I did have a similar episode where I fell down five steps landing on my back and being severely bruised (I do not recall feeling lightheaded at the time just lost my footing). I made sure my doctor (GP) was notified in the letter I wrote that was confirmed was put on the system but no one in the surgery took any action.
However, on 10/06/22 being home alone I was at the top of the stairs and all of a sudden my whole body started to give way. Not only did I feel very lightheaded and the room was spinning, but I also could not balance properly and could feel my body about to hurtle down a flight of stairs. Fortunately, I grabbed hold of the central support pillar to help me break my fall. Had I not stopped myself I would not be writing this post today.
Research suggests people who suffer from psychological stress are more prone to having their condition worsen.
Analyzing why this happened to me yesterday all I can put it down to is I am under a lot of pressure. With the rise in the cost of living and having to also run a business, I am really feeling a financial pinch.
By coincidence taking a leaf out of my own book, I wrote to all the utility companies and my creditors offering to pay anything I owe in affordable installments. All the utility companies and one of the creditors were all understanding and seemed to all accept my offer Barr one who as it happens I owe the least of money to and no word of a lie has written to me 22 emails to date repeating the same things over and over again. As it is my understanding either multiple people are dealing with one account and not updating one another or they are trying to intimidate me to pay more. I have since written a 10-page letter which took me all day to do and no doubt I will be getting email #23 soon.
My utility bills at the beginning of the year were £154 per month in April they rose to £219 and have risen again to £412. Now here is the question where does one find an extra £267 per month if you do not have that sort of money, to begin with?
So I wrote to all my creditors and explained the situation and all have agreed on my offer and the most I pay is £239
It has riled me that every day I get one or two emails from this one creditor (V) and every day I cannot move forward because I always have this nagging conscious feeling that I need to reply.
They are purposely trying to break me down and they leave me no choice but to report them to the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA).
They have caused me considerable emotional and psychological distress.
If it was not for the fact I am pushing myself to fight this battle I could easily have just given up, turned to alcohol, drugs, or worse.
If you are feeling down and are in a similar position to me DO NOT TURN TO Alcohol, Drugs Smoking, etc, instead seek medical advice through your doctor and professional advice immediately.Here is our useful links page.
You should not suffer alone and millions of people are in the same boat as you.
There is a solution to every problem. Stand your ground and never let anyone intimidate or harass you as I have experienced lately.
Write to your creditors on headed paper rather than just email. Provide them with a breakdown of your expenses. This one creditor never sent me a form similar to the one I have designed below, just bombarded me with daily questions.
According to the harassing creditor (V) they claimed they could not have asked all the questions in one email and in my reply I sent them the form below arguing that if a solicitor or governing body writes to you they do not send multiple emails they send one email and or one letter. 22 emails and counting is harassment and is designed to break you down.
I have a sample template of a form you can send your utility companies and creditors. I can customize it for you, make it editable, and remove any watermarks.
I do not drink alcohol as a rule as it has landed me in heaps of embarrassment and trouble many times in the past doing stupid things and am just happy drinking my energy drinks, but this company (V) which shall remain nameless for now is harassing me and that is against the law, consequently making my illness worse.
I have been meaning to update the GP surgery on my health conditions for a while now and have not found the time, but even if my illness worsens I am not going to get treatment, tests, infusions, etc like my daughter is getting. She is 21 and she can make her decisions but I have my own views which I will leave for another day.
Do contact us if you want the customized form in this article using the form below, **please note we may consider sending the form to you (free of charge) if you are experiencing financial difficulty, however, our business information (Disability UK -Disabled Entrepreneur will be in the footer. It will not have Designed by Renata):
Psychological stress can affect a person’s cognitive abilities, in the short term (e.g., when an individual’s thoughts are pre-occupied with an argument or problem that happened earlier in the day resulting in reduced ability to concentrate) as well as over the long term, where the intrusive thoughts creep in and the problem simply does not go away and festers, which in turn can lead to anxiety, depression and other mental health disabilities.
Emotional and cognitive changes
The emotional and cognitive effects are often the greatest challenges. Some of the most common symptoms can be hidden from plain sight. These changes can affect the way people feel about themselves and alter their cognitive functions. For many, the emotional and cognitive effects represent the greatest challenges.
Uncertainty, stress, and anxiety, depression are the most common disorders a person can experience.
A person with an autoimmune neurological disease such as MS or Cerebellar Atrophy may grieve for their life before they were diagnosed with a disorder. Other emotional changes that may occur include clinical depression, bipolar disorder, and mood swings. All of these are more common among people with MS than in the general population. Depression and bipolar disorder require professional attention and the use of effective treatments.
Emotional lability appears to be more common, and possibly more severe, in people with MS and Mental Health Disorders. This may include frequent mood changes, for example from happy to sad to angry.
It is believed that the causes are the extra stress brought on by MS as well as neurological changes. Uncontrollable laughing and crying is a disorder affecting a small proportion of people with MS, and it is thought to be caused by MS-related changes in the brain.
Having MS can affect self-esteem. There may be times when it’s difficult to do everything a person is used to doing, or they may have to do things differently. Focusing too much on the negative aspects can feel overwhelming.
Cognition refers to the “higher” brain functions such as memory and reasoning. About half of all people with MS will not experience any cognitive changes, but for others, the most commonly affected aspects of cognition are:
Attention and concentration
Speed of information processing
Abstract reasoning and problem solving
Studies have shown according to author Dr. Sudha Seshadri, professor of neurology at UT Health San Antonio explains that higher levels of stress translate into raised levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the blood. A raised level of cortisol in the blood can predict brain size, function, and also the performance of the individual when faced with cognitive tests. She said, “We found memory loss and brain shrinkage in relatively young people long before any symptoms could be seen.” It’s never too early to be mindful of reducing stress,” she added. The lead author, Dr. Justin B. Echouffo-Tcheugui, an assistant professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins also said that symptoms of stress-related memory loss and brain damage may not be evident until much damage has already been done.
Cerebellar Atrophy & Stress.
The cerebellum is connected with stress-related brain areas and expresses the machinery required to process stress-related neurochemical mediators. Surprisingly, it is not regarded as a substrate of stress-related behavioral alterations, despite numerous studies that show cerebellar responsivity to stress.
“I suffer from cognitive impairment, I lose my balance, jumble my words, and have memory loss. The condition I have is cerebellar atrophy. I was diagnosed with it around 2011”.
The more stressed I am the less I want to do. I sometimes have to force myself to churn the wheel for another day.
I suffer from clinical depression and have been diagnosed with this over 30 years ago. There are days that I have to fight with my thoughts in order to get through the day.
Recently with the price hikes, my depression is getting worse. I have my voice mail turned off and my phone is on airplane mode constantly. I cannot deal with talking to people over the phone. To counteract this I much prefer email correspondence. I am not too good with letters especially forms because of my OCD, this is something else I suffer with.
Having people pity me and say things “Awh Bless” or “Poor You”, really gets my back up. It is condescending. Furthermore, people are quick to judge or assume.
The difference between someone who is self-employed and someone who is employed is that the employed person is a slave to their employer and has a guaranteed wage, whilst the self-employed do not have a guaranteed income stream. A disabled person may choose to work for themselves as they do not have the same amount of pressure or obstacles to overcome.
I spoke with a British Gas customer rep the other day and she started asking questions, such as do I have a carer, and when I said no, I could hear her brain ticking and assuming that I am making things up about my illness. I tried explaining if I get stressed my mental state shuts down and I go into a whirl of depression. I continued to say that yanking my gas bill from £65 per month to £90 and a further hike to £138 was simply unacceptable. I simply cannot get this sort of money out of my a##e. I ended by saying I won’t be able to work because I cannot cope with the stress this is causing me. Now wait for the assuming bit she replied “what do you mean you will not be able to work, what do you do”? I said “I am the editor of “Disability UK Journal”. There was silence and then her attitude changed.
“A person who is self-employed and becomes unwell cannot function or keep their business running. So if they do not work no money comes in”.
“Just because I run this disability journal does not mean I am rolling around in money. Never assume anything”!
“I am not a charity and I have no funding, I simply rely on Advertising & Marketing Revenue”.
“Never assume because someone is working, they are financially secure or they do not have disabilities, or if they have they must not be all there especially when they have mental health disorders”.
There is so much stigma attached to disabilities with small-minded peoplejudging and assuming things. Just because someone may have a disability does not make them less capable than the next person (depending on certain factors and disabilities of course), they may in fact do a better job.
“A disabled person can be more intelligent than you, so never assume that they are not”.
My Online Journal is my safe space where I can share my stories and vent. I do not always write negatively but of late I have noticed blue-chip corporations treating people badly so not only is this my online therapy it also is a voice for people who cannot or do not know how to stand up for themselves.
I have not made an entry here for a while and yesterday was the ideal time to do some journaling and spill the beans.
The morning started out with me phoning all my insurance providers as I had deleted some direct debits in error. I suffer from cognitive impairment caused by cerebellum atrophy and sometimes muddle my words up. The words can be very overwhelming for me at times. Being stressed does not help and where I should have canceled one insurance policy, I actually canceled three. As it turns out the other two direct debits were obsolete, but still having to phone all nine companies was challenging.
The other problem I have is dreading talking over the phoneso when I tried to rectify the problem via email I was point-blank declined and was told to call. The calling is not so bad but it listening to the prompts Press #1 for what you had for breakfast Press #2 for what you had for lunch and #Press #3 just to annoy you more (just kidding) although I have been subjected to up to 4 minutes of this from various companies before the annoying music starts playing. God forbid if your call drops and you have to start all the BS all over again.
Insurers do not make it easy, so although you may take out insurance by a said insurer the underwriters a separate company collect payment. So there could be the same underwriter for multiple insurers which can make it difficult when trying to find out who is who. I have done a spreadsheet so that I do not get caught out again, but by the 9th insurer I had enough, yet my day was only starting.
What rattled me was, that I was paying £65 at the beginning of the year then it went up to £90, and yesterday she wanted £138 per month. I was told I use more gas than the average household. The way I see it regardless if I did not use any gas at all, I still would have to pay for the service. I am not going to reduce the quality of my life and sit at home freezing cold. or only cook once a week. If a person is struggling to pay £90 then how the hell are they supposed to find the money to pay £138?
“A little bit of maths and common sense would not go a miss“.
“What are people supposed to do, do they have to rob banks or starve”?
Someone on LinkedIn commented “that charity starts a home”, but what she failed to comprehend was the support in the event of a military attack on these countries will be money in BJs / Chancellor of the Exchequers Pockets so to speak. W#ar is big business at the expense of the people. How do you accumulate wealth if you do not lend money or charge interest on the money you lend out? This is how the money system works. If you lone out jets, sell ballistic and nuclear missiles you have to get paid and it’s one big game of the winner takes it all.
I do not support the funding of the lavish lifestyles of the 1%that think they own us and rob us blind. I never agreed to slave away, did you?
No one owns me. I have a voice and I am not afraid to use it!
I am a spiritual being in a physical body and we are here for a reason and it is to teach others, empower and motivate and not steal, abuse, or kill, we are supposed to be intelligent human beings, not animals.
We should be able to distinguish right from wrong and if the likes of P#tin who orders the mass killings then he is no better than something that has just crawled out of a sewer. These people are vermin.
In fact, any person in power that has done wrong should be punished the same way as a member of the public and should also be kicked out of office, I refer to certain politicians, that got a slap on the wrist and fines, for their publicized antics.
There is a Scottish MP trending at the moment that allegedly had £25 Million in Funding For PPE that supposedly ended up being used due to it not being of high quality and was returned. This MP is now being investigated.
Just imagine if this was the average entrepreneur that had done this, they would be facing a custodial sentence for fraud, but I guess if you own 6 houses (one in Belgravia in London) you have enough money to pay for a jail-free card on the monopoly board.
I spoke about a previous post about why people do not care and the customer representative said that people do care and that she cared (no they don’t unless it directly affects them). She then asked if could she help me with anything else and I said “Help me bring in more clients”, the call then ended without any feedback on my remark…I rest my case!
Reference the money she expected me to agree to I said I will pay, but will not be able to eat and the CEO of British Gaswould certainly not have a problem bringing food to the table whilst I will and this is where she started to be sympathetic.
I got my frustration out, if nothing else, and told her she was professional and had a calming voice, I just did not mention the fact she made me feel bad at the beginning of the conversation as what would have been the point. I felt had I not mentioned I am self-employed the conversation would have been slightly different.
Do you think it is by chance this P#tin W#ar has broken out or is it something to do with the deficit spending and all the price rises? Have you forgotten about Brexit and how much money the UK is in debt by and how much money they have to pay back, never mind the trade w#ar in China and the USA? Putting the jigsaw pieces together can you not see a picture emerging?
These blue-chip companies get a 6% commission for our sweat, labor, and hardship. Do you think that the dictator started the w#ar himself or was it pre-arranged at the round table, by a selected few?
People at the top of the food chain seem to think they own and control you and in a way they do.
An example of a battery in the matrix was Virgin Media which I have for months had an ongoing dispute again I have communicated by email and have told them not to phone me and what do they do? they only phone even though I specifically requested not to. What was interesting though my phone was on “do not disturb” but they managed to get through and the phone rang. I re-iterated how much emotional distress they put me through and I am still no closer to a resolution as the email I was promised I would have, never materialized.
So you can imagine the poor sod on the other end of the line receiving my wrath and me saying “if you read my email do you not understand English”, his reply was he was ordered by someone above him to phone me and my final reply was that he obviously did not have the balls to stand up to the person. Most people are afraid of speaking up in the workplace for fear of being fired. People go to work like sheep to get their paychecks the majority do not go to work because they love the company that employs them they are solely there to do a job and get paid. They are human robots being told what to do. Their “VOICE” in the metaphorical sense of the word is taken away, they are slaves to the employer for the hours they work.
Anxiety& Panic Attack.
The day continued with my brother telling me that he is coming over to the UK at Christmas. Under normal circumstances, I should be ecstatic but I am having a panic attack simply thinking about it.
I have not left my home for three years due to social disconnection and OCD, actually, tell a lie I went out once to meet him last year for the day and I felt so ill after that but he was oblivious to my disability. He told me that I have to arrange my schedule and my work around him. He told me we will be talking this weekend coming.
Notice how my disability and my work are of no significance to him and I have to just get over myself.
The icing on the cake was the final straw that broke the camel’s back so to speak with my neighbor announcing she is moving within the month. she without a doubt had to be the nicest neighbor I have ever had, she was always kind, and caring and never did me wrong. I will miss her.
I do believe nothing standstills and when one door closes another one opens so although I felt very depressed yesterday with low self-esteem. That was yesterday though and your mood can change if you stay occupied and not dwell on what is bothering you. I am hopeful about tomorrow and about brighter things to come. I am fortunate I have an online journal to vent my anger which I can share with whoever wants to read my challenges. I did come across a website called (www.storiboard.co.uk) not mine may I add but a portal to share your stories.
Telling Your Story.
Anyone reading this who wants a platform to share their stories is more than welcome to subscribe here and I will make you a contributor or will manually upload your stories for you. It won’t cost you a penny only your time, it is completely free.
I have gone through a lot over the last two decades (I won’t go into it all here but I am a ‘survivor of domestic violence‘ and this is what drives me to tell my story) I won’t say I am strong all the time. I have good days and bad days and yesterday was a bad day for me but I know I will get over it. I am still standing and I won’t let anyone break me, sure they can try but when they knock me down and I get back up again so help me God.
I will be writing my biography soon and I will be calling out all the people that have done me wrong. Don’t misunderstand me, I am not awkward or vengeful, I just think some people deserve their five minutes of fame.
No one on this planet is better than you, we all do the same things, we eat, sleep, and go to the bathroom, and we all cannot survive without water or air. We all have red blood and if Adam and Eve were the first people, then their children would have been inbred so we are all brothers and sisters. The world is an evil place with evil people living in it trying to suck the last ounce of happiness out of you. They should be very worried about what happens to them after they die. Just because some use 24kt Gold WCs does not make them any better than you. We all have the right to live on this planet in harmony and without having to worry about where the next paycheck is going to come from and if we can put food on the table. No one should fear for their lives or be killed for some political agenda. No one should lose their life for the sake of debt ceilings and deficit spending.
I have an invisible disability and I expect to be acknowledged as a human being and not be judged, I expect people to give me the respect I deserve. I do not need anyone giving me advice, or being patronizing, after all when it comes to mental health I specialize in the subject hence why I built this site.
Never assume anything with me without asking me first.
I know if my finances improved so would my mental health. My cerebellum atrophy is incurable but with new drugs coming on the market, anything is possible. I am staying positive; hopefully, someone reading this will invest in me.
One day soon you will learn what one particular “evil animal” did to me and how I am recovering.
I have audio recordings of all the death threats he made to me.
He is no longer residing in the UK, he left last December for Germany however within a month of him starting work he was fired due to an altercation with a woman at his place of work, why does that not surprise me?
Unfortunately, because he does not speak fluent English he was unable to set up an email address so I did it for him and forwarded all his emails to me for translation purposes with his consent, however, I have no access to his settings anymore, and cannot un-forward myself hence I get his emails and all the antics he is getting up to.
I use Outlook and have blocked his email but people sending emails to him still come into my inbox. I have started marking them as spam as I have no other way of stopping any communication.
Remember not all that glitters is gold and that was my mistake and I have learned the hard way.
One day I will rise from the ashes and tell my full story.
Tomorrow is another dayand I aim for a brighter future!
If you found this article insightful, please take a moment to share, comment, and subscribe. Also before you go, please also consider donating the equivalent of a cup of coffee to help keep this “Disability UK”Online Journal going.
Cerebellar Atrophy is something that has motivated me to do research and studies because I personally have been diagnosed with it.
My symptoms are: I lose balance and jumble my words up or miss them out completely when I speak and when I write. Thank God for ‘Grammarly.
Whilst cerebellar atrophy can be the cause of drinking heavily, I personally do not drink alcohol other than on social occasions. It can also be due to head trauma which I cannot rule out.
There is a close connection between Multiple Sclerosis (which my daughter has been diagnosed with) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (which I also suffer from) as I will explain further.
What is the cerebellum and what does it do ?
The cerebellum (“little brain”) is a structure that is located at the back of the brain, underlying the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum is involved in the following functions: Maintenance of balance and posture.
The cerebellum is part of the brain. It lies under the cerebral cortex, towards the back, behind the brainstem, and above the spinal cord. The cerebellum is largely involved in “coordination”. Persons whose cerebellum doesn’t work well are generally clumsy and unsteady. They may look like they are drunk even when they are not.
The cerebellum contains a lot of neurons. According to Hurculano-Houzel (2010), it contains about 80% of the neurons in the brain. So small in size, large in number. It must be doing something pretty important. The large neuron count probably is due to the more elaborate folding of the cerebellar cortex, as the neurons are mainly close to the periphery.
Cerebellar disorders are rare. They are often called “ataxias”. According to Musselman et al (2014), the prevalence of childhood ataxia is 26/100,000 children. Ataxia is rare compared to cerebral palsy (211/100,00) and autism (620/100,000).
Many cerebellar disorders are genetic in origin. In general, the prevalence of genetic disorders and especially autosomal recessive disorders is much higher in populations where there is more consanguinity. Examples of this include Quebec, Canada, and the Al-Kharga district in Egypt. There are also many acquired cerebellar disorders. For example, drinking too much alcohol for a long time causes a cerebellar disorder.
There are several key functions of the cerebellum, including:
Balance and posture
Causes of Cerebellum Damage
Damage to the cerebellum, or to its connection to other parts of the nervous system, can be a result of trauma, health conditions, medications, and other factors, including:
Alcohol use disorder
Lead or mercury poisoning
Medications, including benzodiazepines or barbiturates
Conditions That Affect the Cerebellum
When your cerebellum is damaged, nerve cells break down and die and can cause the following:
Ataxia:The loss of control of voluntary movement (e.g., the ability to move your body the way you want)
Cognitive impairment:A reduction in conscious mental activities, including thinking, learning, memory, and concentration
Dystonia: Involuntary contraction of muscles that normally work in cooperation so that a body part is held in an unusual and often painful position as a result
Tremors: Involuntary, rhythmic contraction of muscles that can lead to shaking movements in the hands, legs, face, head, or vocal cords
Unsteady gait:Walking unsteadily or clumsily (A person with an unsteady gait may appear intoxicated even if that’s not the case.)
Vertigo:The dizziness sensation of spinning, swaying, or tilting, which is frequently associated with balance problems and often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, or hearing loss
Diagnosis of Cerebellar disorders
The main clinical features of cerebellar disorders include incoordination, imbalance, and troubles with stabilizing eye movements. There are two distinguishable cerebellar syndromes — midline and hemispheric.
Midline cerebellar syndromes are characterized by imbalance. Persons are unsteady, they are unable to stand in Romberg with eyes open or closed, and are unable to well perform tandem gait. Severe midline disturbance causes “trunkal ataxia” a syndrome where a person is unable to sit on their bed without steadying themselves. Some persons have “titubation” or a bobbing motion of the head or trunk. Midline cerebellar disturbances also often affect eye movements. There may be nystagmus, ocular dysmetria, and poor pursuit.
Hemispheric cerebellar syndromes are characterized by incoordination of the limbs. There may be the decomposition of movement, dysmetria, and rebound. Dysdiadochokinesis is the irregular performance of rapid alternating movements. Intention tremors may be present in an attempt to touch an object. A kinetic tremor may be present in motion. The finger-to-nose and heel-to-knee tests are classic tests of hemispheric cerebellar dysfunction. While reflexes may be depressed initially with hemispheric cerebellar syndromes, this cannot be counted on. Speech may be dysarthric, scanning, or have an irregular emphasis on syllables.
Maintenance of balance and posture. The cerebellum is important for making postural adjustments in order to maintain balance. Through its input from vestibular receptors and proprioceptors, it modulates commands to motor neurons to compensate for shifts in body position or changes in load upon muscles. Patients with cerebellar damage suffer from balance disorders, and they often develop stereotyped postural strategies to compensate for this problem (e.g., a wide-based stance).
Coordination of voluntary movements. Most movements are composed of a number of different muscle groups acting together in a temporally coordinated fashion. One major function of the cerebellum is to coordinate the timing and force of these different muscle groups to produce fluid limb or body movements.
Motor learning. The cerebellum is important for motor learning. The cerebellum plays a major role in adapting and fine-tuning motor programs to make accurate movements through a trial-and-error process (e.g., learning to hit a baseball).
Cognitive functions. Although the cerebellum is most understood in terms of its contributions to motor control, it is also involved in certain cognitive functions, such as language. Thus, like the basal ganglia, the cerebellum is historically considered as part of the motor system, but its functions extend beyond motor control in ways that are not yet well understood.
Cerebellar Atrophy is one of the diagnostic features in PEHO syndrome (progressive encephalopathy with edema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy) and usually appears in the second year of life.
Symptoms of Cerebellar Atrophy.
The most characteristic symptom of cerebellar degeneration is a wide-based, unsteady, lurching walk, often accompanied by a back and forth tremor in the trunk of the body. Other symptoms may include slow, unsteady, and jerky movement of the arms or legs slowed and slurred speech, dizziness, lightheadedness, loss of balance, cognitive impairment, and nystagmus.
Cerebellar atrophy in the context of other disorders
Cerebellar Atrophy is the neuroradiological hallmark of many progressive ataxias of childhood. It is a nonspecific, yet useful neuroradiological sign (Poretti et al., 2008). Its differentiation from cerebellar hypoplasia can be difficult, especially if progression cannot be proven by repeated MRI. It is defined as a structurally normal cerebellum with enlarged interfolial spaces in a posterior fossa of normal size, while in cerebellar hypoplasia, the cerebellum is small and compact, without widened fissures between the foliae. Besides the hereditary ataxias, cerebellar atrophy can also be found in a multitude of other disorders, often, but not always, with additional neuroradiological abnormalities. If cerebellar atrophy is present, ataxia is often a clinical symptom, but this is not always the case. Hyperintensity of the cerebellar cortex in T2w images has been considered as pathognomonic for infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), but has also been demonstrated in Marinesco–Sjögren syndrome or mitochondrial disorders.
Prominent cerebellar atrophy is present in many of the neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, including metabolic disorders. It can be an isolated neuroradiological feature in juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis. In late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Niemann–Pick disease type C, it is usually accompanied by mild supratentorial atrophy. It is part of the neuroradiological abnormalities in many disorders of white matter, especially in hypomyelination of basal ganglia and cerebellum (HABC) and the 4H syndrome (hypomyelination, hypodontia, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). In white matter disorders, the MRI appearance of the white matter is mostly sufficiently specific to make a diagnosis. Cerebellar atrophy is one of the diagnostic features in PEHO syndrome (progressive encephalopathy with edema, hypsarrhythmia, and optic atrophy) and usually appears in the second year of life. Pontocerebellar atrophy is prominent in certain subtypes of the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), especially in CDG Ia which is a differential diagnosis for pontocerebellar hypoplasia.
Cerebellar Atrophy can also be acquired. Extreme prematurity can cause pontocerebellar atrophy. Acute cerebellitis and autoimmune disorders such as opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome can lead to cerebellar atrophy. More frequent causes of cerebellar atrophy are posterior fossa surgery or radiotherapy (Poretti et al., 2008).
Cerebellar Degeneration is a condition in which cerebellar cells, otherwise known as neurons, become damaged and progressively weaken in the cerebellum. There are two types of cerebellar degeneration; paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, and alcoholic or nutritional cerebellar degeneration. As the cerebellum contributes to the coordination and regulation of motor activities, as well as controlling the equilibrium of the human body, any degeneration to this part of the organ can be life-threatening. Cerebellar degeneration can result in disorders in fine movement, posture, and motor learning in humans, due to a disturbance of the vestibular system. This condition may not only cause cerebellar damage on a temporary or permanent basis, but can also affect other tissues of the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex, spinal cord, and the brainstem (made up of the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons).
Cerebellar Degeneration can be attributed to a plethora of hereditary and non-hereditary conditions. More commonly, cerebellar degeneration can also be classified according to conditions that an individual may acquire during their lifetime, including infectious, metabolic, autoimmune, paraneoplastic, nutritional, or toxic triggers.
Conclusions: Altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebral networks involved in cognitive-affective processing in patients with OCD provides further evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of OCD, and is consistent with impairment in executive control and emotion
Background: The role of the cerebellum in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has drawn increasing attention. However, the functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex has not been investigated in OCD, nor has the relationship between such functional connectivity and clinical symptoms.
Methods: A total of 27 patients with OCD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on age, sex and education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seed-based connectivity analyses were performed to examine differences in cerebellar-cerebral connectivity in patients with OCD compared with HCs. Associations between functional connectivity and clinical features in OCD were analyzed.
Results: Compared with HCs, OCD patients showed significantly decreased cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity in executive control and emotion processing networks. Within the OCD group, decreased functional connectivity in an executive network spanning the right cerebellar Crus I and the inferior parietal lobule was positively correlated with symptom severity and decreased connectivity in an emotion processing network spanning the left cerebellar lobule VI and the lingual gyrus was negatively correlated with illness duration.
Altered functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebral networks involved in cognitive-affective processing in patients with OCD provides further evidence for the involvement of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of OCD and is consistent with impairment in executive control and emotion regulation in this condition.
Keywords: Cerebellar circuits; executive control network; functional connectivity; obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Cerebellar atrophy is more extensive in patients with secondary progressive MS and those with longer disease duration when compared with people who have relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and/or shorter disease duration, and cerebellar atrophy has been shown to correlate with clinical measures of disability.
I have this methology “if life gives you lemons, make lemonade”. I am not the type of person to whinge and moan, I just make the most of what I have and try to get on with it.
I always keep myself busy and set goals. However my physical and mental disabilities are obstacles that daily I have to get round.
My OCD is by far one of my prominent disabilities and have designed a quarantined cocoon area where only I have access to. This area allows me to be free of any anxieties that I would have in the normal environment. I have adopted this practice to save cleaning my whole home from top to bottom day in and day out. Believe me I used to clean from top to bottom every single day until I realised I was wasting valuable time doing something else.
Keeping myself busy does help to block out intrusive thoughts to a certain degree. I am the worlds worse for critising myself. I try to brain train to reason with myself that what I do is ridiculous and out of character to normal people, but it all is related to stress, anxiety and depression. Depending how stress I am under will depend how well my day will be. If I am super stressed, I find that I cannot concentrate and even do minuscule tasks.
My OCD is germ contamination related and I am even more conscious of my surrounding and the things that I touch. I dislike people visting me and visa versa. I prefer not to go out, hence I am not going out any time soon pandemic regulations or not.
I actually wrote an article on my other blog about germ awareness and cross contamination: https://marketingagency.cymrumarketing.com/2021/02/16/saliva-and-mail-cross-contamination-of-germs/
As for my other disabilities:
Cerebellar Atrophy (I lose my balance or grip and muddle my words up especially when I write, I also have mental blocks).
OCD (I am aware of germ cross contimination and and am careful what I touch).
Social Disconnection (I prefer my own company and not go out and socialise, although we can’t anyway but you get my drift).
PTSD (I have flashbacks of the physical and mental trauma I endured in the past and certain things trigger my depression).
Clinical Depression (This is related to past physical and mental trauma I endured, in which there are days where I go to a dark place).
Rheumatoid Arthritis (I cannot bend my knee, again from past physical trauma/abuse).
Dysphagia (I sometimes choke of food, I get a painful feeling followed by trouble swallowing and breathing and only when the food is dislodged does the feeling subside, gross I know but what can I do? I have been told I could have surgery but there is no gauarantee that it would work. I am not going to go under the knife for anything, I can tell you that for sure).
Epidural Analgesia (Chronic Back Pain, even bending down to feed the cat makes my back spasm, the same goes if I am standing for excessive length of time I have shooting pains from the small of my back to the nape of my neck. Simple taskes like taking out the rubbish or bringing in the grocery shopping has brought tears to my eyes in the past).
So yes I have good days and bad days but I do not dwell on my ailments and try to live the best way I can. I adapt to around my disabilities. Fortuantely for me I offer digital services so I can do 100% of my work online and do not have to venture out.
Stress and worry are contributing factorsto my OCD, PTSD, Depression and Social Disconnection.
Getting headaches (I have regular headaches)
Having stomach cramps (I have a bad stomach most days, but that can be from drinking energy drinks to keep me awake).
Not being able to sleep (I find my medication helps me sleep but it takes a few hours for me to wind down, hence I watch a film or play a game, I also read books from time to time).
Feeling pains in your chest (I do not get them often but when I do it is scary as I have also experienced jaw ache and shooting pain down my left arm in the past). I have had an ecg scan done and the doctor said there was nothing wrong, yet the same doctor also prescribed antacid ‘Gaviscon’ to my daughter even though she was later diagnosed with MS after I admitted her into A&E.
Having constant worring (If I do not keep myself busy I do worry hence I try to keep my mind occupied all the time). Worrying only makes your health deteriorate and although life struggles can get in the way of your happiness, one needs to find a way to tackle the problem we are faced with, rather than sweep them under the carpet. Confronting your inner demons makes you stronger. Sometimes simply writing down your problems is the first step to dealing with whatever is on your mind. Talking to a friend or family member also helps but for me expessing my emotions in the form of a blog is theraputic in itself.
Having panic attacks (I only get these if I have to meet negative people). People that judge or critise, you know the people I am talking about or if I have a deadline in work or something that I have seen or heard that has triggered the onset of sheer panic. However for most part I am organised and know to how to avoid trigger warnings, so panic attacks are subdued.
Feeling shortness of breath, (I only get this if I cannot swallow due to my Dysphagia or at times when I have in the past been in distress, due to the trauma and abuse I endured).
Having mood swings with friends or family (I avoid socialising so no one knows my moods and no one can be on the tail end if I do have a bad day).
Finding it hard to feel happy (Continuously reassuring myself and staying positive that what I am doing will eventually change my life for the better, is enough to motivate me to get up and tackle every day tasks).
Although I was going to do a daily/weekly journal of my health, I am not able to do so at present as I have many projects I am working on and simply do not have the time, but I always try to strive to stay focused and optimistic that tomorrow will be a better day.
Obviously adopting a healthy lifestyle can help with coping with life struggles, such as:
Learning New Things
Avoiding Negative People
Learning to Trust People
Talking to Family and Friends About Your Troubles
Discussing your Problems with Professionals, Health, Finance, Relationships etc
I am a disabled entrepreneur and I have created a business round my disabilities. The way I saw it when I first started out, I would not fit in or be accepted in a normal working enviroment and I am the most happiest I have ever been for a long time doing what I do and it works for me. So the way I see it is my disabilities are a blessing in disguise, as I would not be where I am today without them.
I avoid negative judgemental people especially if they have power trips (Trolls especially that have nothing better to do than try an bring a person down, these get immediately blocked).
As for me I will help anyone that genuinely needs my help. I am very good at analysing people and situations and I am very astute.
Stay safe, stay focused and stay motivated, nothing stays the same forever unless you let it…
Amongst my knowledge of OCD and Cerebellar Atrophy I have been thrown into the deep end with Multiple Sclerosis. The reason for this, my daughter was diagonosed with it at the age of 15. It was a shock to the system for the both of us to learn about the disease, the diagnosis and what treatments there were and what are available.
I had concerns when I read that the treatment was still going ahead even though European Medicine Agency (EMA) had taken it off the market. The hospital and EMA said that no new patients would be having to drug but the patients already on it would have to finish the course.
I personally think there was political red tape and that is the reason the drug had to be continued with existing patients as it cost too much and was too complicated to get a refund, I may be wrong but no one has stepped up to correct me. If the drug had been bought upfront you could not exactly get your money back I suppose. I do not know how buying drug work, but I assume pharmaceutical companies get paid upfront as they have to make large batches, with expiry dates hence the NHS cannot return drugs once they have been manufactured in large quantities.
Lemtrada suppresses the immune system for some time after a treatment course so people will be more vulnerable to infections such as colds and viruses.
LEMTRADA can cause serious side effects including:
Serious autoimmune problems:
Some people receiving LEMTRADA develop a condition where the immune cells in your body attack other cells or organs in the body (autoimmunity), which can be serious and may cause death.
Serious autoimmune problems may include:
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), a condition of reduced platelet counts in your blood that can cause severe bleeding that may cause life‑threatening problems.
Call your healthcare provider (HCP) right away if you have any of the following symptoms: easy bruising; bleeding from a cut that is hard to stop; coughing up blood; heavier menstrual periods than normal; bleeding from your gums or nose that is new or takes longer than usual to stop; small, scattered spots on your skin that are red, pink, or purple
Kidney problems called anti‑glomerular basement membrane disease, which, if not treated, can lead to severe kidney damage, kidney failure that needs dialysis, a kidney transplant, or death.
Call your HCP right away if you have any of the following symptoms: swelling of your legs or feet; blood in the urine (red or tea‑colored urine); decrease in urine; fatigue; coughing up blood.
So its no suprise thatOn July 3, 2020 Sanofi Genzymewas notified that Lemtrada Home Phlebotomy Partner, Examination Management Services Inc., (EMSI) has gone out of business.
Because of this, unfortunately, all future Lemtrada Home Phlebotomy (lab draw) visits from EMSI have been cancelled.
Patient safety is Sanofi Genzyme’s #1 priority (thats a joke if I ever heard one as my daughter was still administerd the drug after the EMA said it was unsafe) and they continued to say they are working to provide an alternative phlebotomy solution as well as coordinate alternative testing options for your next monthly lab tests.
This tells me that the company had to do refunds and the NHS here in the UK were slow and had already paid the doctors.
I wrote an article on my other blog how Doctors get a commission from pharmaceutical companies for promoting drugs.
You can read the article here:
Doctors receiving money from pharmaceutical companies.
I personally think when I first learned about this, that I was angry that the NHS knew the risk, yet used my daughter as a lab rat.
If you have any questions related to this announcement, please contact your healthcare provider or your One to One Nurse at (USA) 1-855-557-2483.
If you are in the UK contact your MS Team, or speak to the Ward Manager or Professor assigned to your case.
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Multiple Sclerosis is an auto-immune disease that attacks healthy white cells. The lesions that can affect the brain and spinal cord can cause a wide range of potential symptoms, including problems with vision, arm or leg movement, sensation or balance.
It is an incurable disease with lifelong symptoms that can sometimes cause serious disability, although it can occasionally be mild.
The average life expectancy is slightly reduced for people with MS and symptons can be alliviated with different courses of treatments.
In most cases, people get diagnosed in their 20s or 30s but it has been known the patients have shown symptoms as young as 15 years of age. In fact, it can develop at any age. It’s about 2 to 3 times more common in women than men.
MS is one of the most common causes of disability in younger adults.
Cerebellar atrophy is associated with MS and is more extensive in patients with secondary progressive MS and those with longer disease duration when compared with people who have relapsing–remitting (RR) MS and/or shorter disease duration. Cerebellar atrophy has been shown to correlate with clinical measures of disability.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly affects the cerebellum causing acute and chronic symptoms. Cerebellar signs contribute significantly to clinical disability, and symptoms such as tremor, ataxia, and dysarthria are particularly difficult to treat.
Dysphagia is the medical term for problems with swallowing food and drink.
Some people find it difficult to swallow certain foods or liquids, while others can’t swallow at all, other side effects include: coughing or choking when eating or drinking. bringing food back up, sometimes through the nose.
I know this may sound horrifying or even disgusting but on and off depending on what food I eat and if I have taken small bites will determine if I do not have the feeling I am choking and that food is stuck and won’t go up or down. This usually occurs if the food is dry and if I have taken large bites. Normally I have to chew my food like a cow chewing grass. Eventually, it gets monotonous and I lose the enjoyment of the food I eat. If only there was a pill form where you could choose your meat and veg and have the taste and nutrition plus the feeling you have had a slap-up meal all in one.
In fact, In 1936 the Jefferson City Post-Tribune ran an article recounting the views of Dr. Milton A Bridges of Columbia University. In it, he declared: “Human beings are never going to eat pills for meals” (why not? I would try it for certain) he went on to say “pills can never be made to contain sufficient caloric volume”.
Reading this I would find this would be an idyllic solution to my problem, popping a pill saving time sourcing the produce, cooking, and then chewing, not to mention losing weight in the process with the low-calorie count, how wonderful that would be. Imagine your gas or electric energy bill would also drop in the process. But this is not an ideal world and the Government and the Economy would be affected hence it is never going to happen, not in my lifetime anyway. This would also solve world hunger but one would need to have calories as our bodies need on average of 2000 calories per pay so we would have to pop around 400 pills per day just for calories alone. (My theory if that was the case would be to crush them and mix them up as a smoothy formula).
To think how many hours we waste shopping for groceries, packing and unpacking, preparing and cooking, and then sitting and eating for me I could be doing something else as time is precious. Imagine how much packaging we could eliminate from our lives whilst saving the planet in the process.
What is the likely cause of the dysphagia?
Certain disorders such as multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and Parkinson’s disease can cause dysphagia. Neurological damage. Sudden neurological damage, such as from a stroke or brain or spinal cord injury, can affect your ability to swallow.
I wonder if this may be linked to Cerebellar Atrophy & Epidural Analgesia? I am not an expert but it seems a bit of a coincidence that I have the above ailments and find it difficult to swallow at times.
How toTreat Dysphagia includes:
Exercises your swallowing muscles.
Evaluate your Diet and perhaps change the foods you eat. (Don’t know if there is a recipe for a full english breakfast smoothy).
Endoscopy. ( I had this proceedure done they made me swallow barium and then they stuck a camera down my throat), besides this is for diagnosis purposes and not for ment as a cure.
Surgery. (Not guaranteed to be a successful and you may have to repeated surgeries).
Medicines. ( I have been prescribed Gaviscon Advanced Mint tablets, as I suffer with acid reflux which is also associated Dysphagia.
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