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Category: Brain Research

Hoarding: Understanding the Disorder and Its Implications

Brown and Cream Coloured Image Depicting A Typewriter with Paper and Typed Wording "Hoarding". Image Credit: PhotoFunia.com Category Vintage Typewriter.
Brown and Cream Coloured Image Depicting A Typewriter with Paper and Typed Wording “Hoarding”. Image Credit: PhotoFunia.com Category Vintage Typewriter.

Learning To Declutter.

Hoarding, a condition often sensationalized in media and misunderstood by the public, is a complex psychological disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Characterized by the excessive acquisition of items and an inability to discard them, hoarding can lead to severe emotional, physical, social, and financial consequences. This article aims to shed light on the intricacies of hoarding, its causes, effects, and potential treatments.

What is Hoarding?

Hoarding disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value. This difficulty is due to a perceived need to save the items and the distress associated with discarding them. As a result, living spaces become cluttered to the point that their intended use is impaired, causing significant distress or impairment in functioning.

Causes of Hoarding

The exact causes of hoarding are not fully understood, but several factors are believed to contribute to its development:

  1. Genetics: Research suggests a genetic component, as hoarding tends to run in families. Individuals with a family history of hoarding are more likely to exhibit hoarding behaviors themselves.
  2. Brain Function and Structure: Neuroimaging studies have indicated that people with hoarding disorder may have abnormalities in brain regions involved in decision-making, impulse control, and emotional regulation.
  3. Trauma and Stress: Traumatic life events, such as the death of a loved one, divorce, or significant loss, can trigger hoarding behaviors as a coping mechanism.
  4. Psychological Factors: Conditions such as anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid with hoarding disorder.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Hoarding disorder is characterized by several key symptoms:

  • Excessive Acquisition: Continually acquiring items that are not needed or for which there is no space.
  • Difficulty Discarding Items: Extreme distress or indecision about getting rid of possessions, leading to accumulation.
  • Cluttered Living Spaces: Spaces become so cluttered that they can no longer be used for their intended purpose, such as kitchens becoming unusable for cooking or bedrooms for sleeping.
  • Distress and Impairment: The condition causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Diagnosis is typically made through clinical interviews and assessments that evaluate the severity and impact of hoarding behaviors on the individual’s life.

Impact of Hoarding

The repercussions of hoarding extend beyond the individual to affect their family, community, and overall quality of life:

  1. Health Risks: Accumulation of clutter can create unsafe living conditions, increasing the risk of falls, fires, and unsanitary environments that can lead to health problems.
  2. Social Isolation: Individuals with hoarding disorder often feel ashamed and embarrassed about their living conditions, leading to social withdrawal and isolation.
  3. Financial Strain: The compulsive buying associated with hoarding can lead to significant financial problems, including debt and bankruptcy.
  4. Family Strain: Family members may experience stress, frustration, and helplessness when dealing with a loved one’s hoarding behaviors, which can strain relationships.

Treatment and Management

Effective treatment for hoarding disorder typically involves a combination of therapeutic approaches:

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): This is the most commonly used therapy, focusing on changing the thoughts and behaviors that contribute to hoarding. It includes strategies for organizing, decision-making, and developing coping skills.
  2. Medications: In some cases, antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms, particularly if there is an underlying condition such as depression or OCD.
  3. Support Groups: Connecting with others who have similar experiences can provide emotional support and practical advice for managing the disorder.
  4. Professional Organizers: Working with professional organizers who understand hoarding can help individuals gradually declutter and organize their living spaces.

Commonly Hoarded Items – Individuals with hoarding disorder can hoard a wide variety of items, including:

  1. Papers: Newspapers, magazines, mail, and important documents are commonly hoarded due to a perceived need to keep information.
  2. Clothing: Old, worn-out, or never-used clothes often accumulate, as individuals struggle to part with them due to sentimental value or perceived future need.
  3. Books: Collections of books can become overwhelming, often kept due to an attachment to the knowledge they contain.
  4. Food: Non-perishable and sometimes even perishable food items can be hoarded, leading to health hazards and unsanitary conditions.
  5. Household Items: Broken appliances, empty containers, and various knick-knacks are often saved for their perceived usefulness or potential repurposing.
  6. Trash and Recyclables: Items with no practical value, such as empty bottles, old packaging, and broken items, are often retained due to an inability to discard them.
  7. Animals: Animal hoarding, a subtype of hoarding disorder, involves keeping an excessive number of pets without the ability to provide proper care.
  8. Sentimental Items: Objects with sentimental value, such as gifts, souvenirs, and family heirlooms, are often hoarded to preserve memories and emotional connections.
  9. Electronics: Outdated or non-functional electronics, like old phones and computers, are commonly kept due to the belief they might be useful in the future.
  10. Furniture: Excessive amounts of furniture, often old or broken, can create significant clutter, obstructing living spaces.
  11. Craft Supplies: Including yarn, fabric, beads, paints, and other materials intended for future projects that often never get completed.
  12. Toys: Children’s toys, sometimes kept long after children have outgrown them, or collected due to sentimental value or as potential collectibles.
  13. Tools: Various tools and hardware, often kept with the belief they will be useful for future repairs or projects.
  14. Kitchen Utensils: Excessive amounts of kitchen gadgets, cookware, and utensils that may be broken or rarely used.
  15. Cleaning Supplies: Stockpiles of cleaning products, often far more than what is necessary for regular use.
  16. Gardening Supplies: Pots, seeds, tools, and other gardening materials, sometimes kept despite a lack of gardening activity.
  17. Beauty Products: Old or unused makeup, skincare products, and toiletries, often kept long past their expiration dates.
  18. Bags and Containers: Plastic bags, boxes, jars, and other containers that are saved for potential reuse.
  19. Hobby Items: Collections related to hobbies, such as sports memorabilia, model kits, or collections like stamps and coins, often growing beyond manageable levels.
  20. Jewelry and Accessories: Excessive amounts of costume jewelry, scarves, belts, and other accessories that are rarely worn but kept for their perceived value or beauty.

These additional items further illustrate the wide range of possessions that individuals with hoarding disorder may accumulate, often resulting in significant clutter and distress.

“Navigating Landlord-Tenant Dynamics: Implications and Considerations”

As a tenant, failing to maintain a clutter-free living space not only risks fines but also the possibility of eviction notices. Holding onto possessions that serve no practical purpose can lead to severe consequences, both financially and emotionally. It’s essential to train your mind to distinguish between necessity and desire, questioning whether an item truly adds value to your life. While you may justify keeping things for their potential usefulness in the future, the reality is that day may never arrive. Learning to let go is crucial, akin to releasing trauma or negativity endured, including mental and physical abuse. While accumulating possessions might provide a false sense of security, it can harbor hidden dangers. Excessive paper clutter, for example, can pose fire hazards, and hoarding items susceptible to rot can lead to germ contamination. Prioritizing safety and well-being means embracing the practice of decluttering and letting go of unnecessary belongings.

“Understanding the Distinctions: Hoarding Disorder vs. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)”

Hoarding disorder is often considered distinct from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), although there are overlapping features between the two conditions. Both hoarding disorder and OCD involve repetitive behaviors and intrusive thoughts that cause distress, but they differ in several key aspects:

  1. Nature of Obsessions and Compulsions: In OCD, obsessions are intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that cause anxiety or distress, while compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts performed in response to the obsessions to reduce anxiety. In hoarding disorder, the primary symptoms are excessive acquisition of possessions and difficulty discarding them, rather than specific obsessions and compulsions.
  2. Focus of Concern: In OCD, the focus of concern is typically on specific themes such as contamination, symmetry, or harm. In hoarding disorder, the focus is on the possessions themselves and the perceived need to save them, rather than on particular obsessional themes.
  3. Response to Treatment: While both OCD and hoarding disorder may respond to certain treatments such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), the specific interventions may differ. Hoarding disorder often requires specialized treatment approaches that address the unique features of the disorder, such as difficulties with decision-making and emotional attachment to possessions.
  4. Neurobiological Differences: Neuroimaging studies have suggested that there may be differences in brain activity and structure between individuals with OCD and those with hoarding disorder, although more research is needed to fully understand these differences.

However, it’s worth noting that hoarding behaviors can occur as a symptom of OCD in some cases, particularly when the hoarding is driven by obsessions related to fears of losing important information or items. In such cases, the hoarding behavior would be considered a manifestation of the individual’s OCD rather than a hoarding disorder per se.

Overall, while hoarding disorder shares some similarities with OCD, it is considered a distinct diagnosis with its own set of diagnostic criteria and treatment approaches.

Is Hoarding Considered Eligible for Personal Independence Payments?

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Image of man sat down on the floor in the middle of the room surrounded by clutter.

Understanding the criteria for eligibility for Personal Independence Payments (PIP) can be complex, especially when it comes to conditions like hoarding disorder. While PIP is designed to provide financial support for individuals with disabilities or long-term health conditions, determining eligibility for hoarding disorder can be nuanced. Therefore to prove you have a problem you must be diagnosed with the disorder, backed by a medical history which you need to prove with photographic evidence of your hoarding or allow social workers to come and inspect your property. A health journal also helps DWP & NHS understand you and how you are dealing with your disability daily.

The Complex Reasons Behind Hoarding Behavior

Hoarding, often misunderstood and misrepresented, is a complex psychological phenomenon that manifests in the excessive accumulation of possessions and the reluctance to discard them. While the cluttered living spaces characteristic of hoarding may seem perplexing to outsiders, the underlying motivations driving this behavior are deeply rooted in individual psychology and experiences. Let’s explore some of the reasons why someone may hoard and unravel the intricate layers of this disorder.

Fear of Letting Go

For many individuals who hoard, the act of discarding possessions triggers intense anxiety and distress. This fear of letting go stems from a variety of sources, including a deep-seated belief that they may need the items in the future or that discarding them will result in loss or harm. The possessions serve as a form of security blanket, providing a sense of comfort and control in an unpredictable world. Whether it’s old newspapers, broken trinkets, or seemingly worthless items, each possession holds significance and represents a tangible link to the past or a potential future need.

Grief and Holding onto Memories

Hoarding can also be a coping mechanism for dealing with grief and loss. In times of emotional upheaval, such as the death of a loved one or the end of a significant relationship, individuals may cling to possessions associated with the past as a way of preserving memories and maintaining a connection to the person or event. Each item becomes imbued with sentimental value, serving as a tangible reminder of happier times or a source of comfort amidst pain and loneliness. The fear of forgetting or losing cherished memories drives the compulsion to hoard, even if it means sacrificing living space and functionality.

Feeling Safe Amongst Possessions

In some cases, hoarding is driven by a profound sense of insecurity and the belief that one’s possessions offer protection and stability. For individuals grappling with feelings of vulnerability or instability, surrounding themselves with material possessions provides a sense of safety and reassurance. The cluttered environment acts as a physical barrier, shielding them from external threats and offering a semblance of control over their surroundings. However, this perceived safety is often illusory, as the clutter itself can pose hazards and exacerbate feelings of isolation and despair.


Hoarding is a serious disorder with far-reaching consequences. Understanding its causes, recognizing its symptoms, and seeking appropriate treatment can significantly improve the lives of those affected. By increasing awareness and compassion, we can better support individuals in overcoming the challenges associated with hoarding and help them lead healthier, more organized lives.

Hoarding is a serious and often misunderstood disorder that requires compassionate and comprehensive treatment. Understanding the underlying causes, recognizing the symptoms, and seeking appropriate help can significantly improve the lives of those affected by hoarding. Through ongoing research and increased awareness, we can better support individuals in overcoming the challenges associated with this condition and promote healthier, more organized lives.

Hoarding is a multifaceted disorder with roots in deep-seated fears, unresolved grief, and a quest for security and control. Understanding the underlying motivations driving hoarding behavior is essential for providing effective support and intervention. While the cluttered living spaces may seem chaotic and overwhelming, each possession holds a story, a memory, or a fragment of identity for the individual. By addressing the emotional and psychological needs underpinning hoarding, we can help individuals navigate towards healing and reclaiming their lives from the grip of clutter.

I can say I am a makeup hoarder I buy makeup even though I may never use it. My mother taught me “Do you want it or do you need it”? and clearly, that has not resonated with me. Note to self, it’s time to declutter...

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Parkinson’s patients work their brains harder

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Parkinson’s Patients Work Their Brains Harder to Stay Motivated

Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement), also profoundly affects cognitive functions. Recent research highlights that Parkinson’s patients exert more mental effort to maintain motivation compared to individuals without the disease. This finding sheds light on the cognitive struggles faced by those with Parkinson’s and underscores the complexity of the disease beyond its physical manifestations.

The Study

A study conducted by a team of neuroscientists and psychologists delved into the cognitive aspects of motivation in Parkinson’s patients. The research involved functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to observe brain activity and various cognitive tests to assess motivational states. The participants included both Parkinson’s patients and a control group of healthy individuals.

Key Findings – Increased Brain Activity

The research revealed that Parkinson’s patients exhibit heightened activity in specific brain regions when engaging in tasks requiring motivation. These areas include the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia, both crucial for decision-making and reward processing. The increased activation suggests that Parkinson’s patients need to exert more cognitive effort to achieve the same level of motivation and task engagement as their healthy counterparts.

Cognitive Load and Effort

Participants with Parkinson’s reported feeling more fatigued and mentally drained during tasks that required sustained motivation. This aligns with the increased brain activity observed, indicating a higher cognitive load. The disease’s impact on dopamine-producing neurons, which play a significant role in motivation and reward, is a likely contributor to this phenomenon. As dopamine levels diminish, the brain compensates by working harder, thereby increasing cognitive strain.

Motivation and Reward Processing

The study also found differences in how rewards are processed. Parkinson’s patients showed a blunted response to rewards, which could explain the increased effort needed to stay motivated. The diminished reward sensitivity means that what might be a motivating factor for healthy individuals does not have the same effect on those with Parkinson’s, necessitating additional cognitive effort to pursue goals.

Implications for Treatment

These findings have important implications for developing treatment strategies. Understanding that Parkinson’s patients need to work their brains harder to stay motivated can guide the creation of more effective therapeutic approaches. For example:

  1. Cognitive Rehabilitation: Programs designed to strengthen cognitive functions, particularly those related to motivation and reward processing, could be beneficial.
  2. Medication Adjustments: Optimizing medications that enhance dopamine activity might help reduce the cognitive burden associated with maintaining motivation.
  3. Behavioral Interventions: Techniques such as motivational interviewing or cognitive-behavioral therapy could be tailored to support Parkinson’s patients in managing the additional cognitive load.

Enhancing Quality of Life

Addressing the cognitive aspects of motivation is crucial for improving the overall quality of life for Parkinson’s patients. By recognizing and mitigating the extra effort required for mental tasks, caregivers and healthcare providers can better support patients in their daily activities and long-term goals. Providing tools and strategies to manage cognitive fatigue and enhance motivation can lead to more effective coping mechanisms and a better quality of life.

Future Research Directions

Further research is needed to explore the long-term effects of increased cognitive effort on motivation and overall mental health in Parkinson’s patients. Additionally, investigating the potential benefits of new treatments targeting cognitive functions and motivational states can lead to more holistic approaches in managing Parkinson’s disease.


The recent research underscores the significant cognitive effort Parkinson’s patients must exert to maintain motivation, highlighting the need for comprehensive treatment strategies that address both physical and mental health aspects. As we deepen our understanding of Parkinson’s disease, it becomes increasingly clear that supporting cognitive functions is vital for improving the lives of those affected by this challenging condition.


Brain Research On Aphantasia and Autobiographical Memory

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Brain Research Offers New Insights on Aphantasia and Autobiographical Memory

Cognitive neuroscience exploration of human memory and visualization has led to fascinating discoveries. One such revelation is the condition known as aphantasia, a unique phenomenon where individuals cannot voluntarily visualize mental images. Recent studies have unveiled significant insights into how this condition impacts autobiographical memory, shedding light on the intricate workings of the human brain.

Understanding Aphantasia

Aphantasia, first coined by neurologist Adam Zeman in 2015, describes the inability to form mental images of objects, people, places, or events. While most people can close their eyes and picture a loved one’s face or a scenic landscape, those with aphantasia experience a blank screen. This condition can be congenital or acquired due to brain injury, with estimates suggesting that 2-3% of the population may be affected.

Autobiographical Memory and Visualization

Autobiographical memory is our ability to recall personal experiences and events from our past. It plays a crucial role in forming our identity and guiding future behavior. This type of memory is typically rich with sensory details, including visual images. However, for individuals with aphantasia, the lack of mental imagery raises intriguing questions about how they encode and retrieve these memories.

Recent Research Findings

Recent brain research has provided deeper insights into how aphantasia influences autobiographical memory. Studies utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other neuroimaging techniques have compared the brain activity of individuals with and without aphantasia while performing memory tasks.

One significant finding is that people with aphantasia exhibit reduced activity in the visual cortex, the part of the brain responsible for processing visual information, during tasks involving mental imagery. This suggests that their brains may rely more on non-visual strategies to recall memories. For instance, they might focus on semantic details (facts and concepts) or other sensory modalities (sounds, smells, and tactile information) to reconstruct past experiences.

The Role of the Default Mode Network

The default mode network (DMN), a set of interconnected brain regions, is known to be active when the mind is at rest and engaged in self-referential thinking, such as daydreaming or recalling personal memories. Research indicates that individuals with aphantasia show altered connectivity within the DMN. This alteration might explain their reliance on non-visual elements when recalling autobiographical memories.

Implications for Memory Encoding and Retrieval

The findings have significant implications for our understanding of memory encoding and retrieval. Traditionally, visual imagery has been considered a critical component of these processes. However, the experiences of individuals with aphantasia challenge this notion, suggesting that the brain can adapt and use alternative pathways to store and recall memories.

Practical Implications and Future Directions

Understanding aphantasia and its impact on autobiographical memory can have practical applications in fields such as education, psychology, and therapy. For instance, educators can develop strategies that do not rely heavily on visual aids for students with aphantasia. Therapists might tailor their approaches to help individuals with aphantasia use other sensory cues or semantic details to process and articulate their experiences.

Future research aims to further explore the neural mechanisms underlying aphantasia and how these individuals compensate for their lack of mental imagery. Longitudinal studies could examine how aphantasia affects cognitive development and aging, while genetic research might uncover potential hereditary factors contributing to the condition.


The study of aphantasia offers a unique window into the diversity of human cognitive experiences. By examining how individuals with this condition recall and interpret their past, researchers are uncovering the brain’s remarkable ability to adapt and find alternative ways to encode and retrieve memories. These insights not only enhance our understanding of memory and visualization but also highlight the incredible variability in how we perceive and interact with the world around us.